How to Stop a Cough in 1-2 Min: Easy Breathing Exercise
J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Mar; vol 48(no. 3): p. 343-345.
The role of cough and hyperventilation in perpetuating airway
inflammation in asthma.
Singh V, Chowdhary R, Chowdhary N.
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, SMS Medical College, Jaipur-302 016,
Air flowing through a pipe exerts frictional stress on the walls of the
pipe. Frictional stress of more than 40 N/m2 (velocity equivalent of
air 113 m/s) is known to cause acute endothelial damage in blood
vessels. The frictional stress in airways during coughing may be much
greater, however, since the velocity of air may be as high as speed of
sound in air. We suggest that high levels of frictional stress
perpetuate airway inflammation in airways which are already inflamed
and vulnerable to frictional stress-induced trauma in patients with
asthma. Activities associated with rapid ventilation and higher
frictional stress (e.g. exercise, hyperventilation, coughing, sneezing
and laughing) cause asthma to worsen whilst activities that reduce
frictional stress (Yoga 'Pranayama', breathing a helium-oxygen mixture
and nasal continuous positive airway pressure) are beneficial. Therefore
control of cough may have anti-inflammatory benefits in patients with
Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007 Jun 15; 156(3): p. 331-339.
Cough and ventilatory adjustments evoked by aerosolised capsaicin and
distilled water (fog) in man.
Lavorini F, Pantaleo T, Geri P, Mutolo D, Pistolesi M, Fontana GA.
Dipartimento di Area Critica Medico Chirurgica, Unit Funzionale di
Medicina Respiratoria, Universite di Firenze, Viale G.B. Morgagni 85,
50134 Firenze, Italy.
Airway receptors mediate cough and ventilatory adjustments.
Simultaneous assessment of cough sensory-motor components and changes
in breathing pattern may provide insights into the receptors
prevailingly stimulated by inhaled irritants. Nineteen subjects
inhaled capsaicin and fog up to threshold concentrations for cough.
Cough intensity, respiratory sensations and changes in breathing
pattern induced by the two irritants were compared. Capsaicin and fog
cough threshold values did not correlate. Coughing induced by both
agents was preceded by qualitatively similar sensations and by
significant increases in minute ventilation and respiratory drive due
to selective increases in tidal volume (P<0.01). Cough intensity was
similar with both agents. Cough frequency and the intensity of the urge
to cough were higher with capsaicin (P<0.01). The lack of
correlation between fog and capsaicin cough threshold values suggests
differences in the neural mechanisms activated. The selective increase
in tidal volume suggests prevailing involvement of rapidly adapting
receptors. The stronger sensations evoked by capsaicin may contribute
to the higher cough frequency observed with this agent.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1999 Jun;54(3):275-9.
Advances in understanding and treatment of cough.
Sherrington School of Physiology, St. Thomas' Hospital Campus (UMDS),
Many different conditions and diseases cause cough. The commonest acute
causes are pollution, including cigarette smoke, and upper respiratory
tract infection. The commonest chronic causes are postnasal drip,
asthma, chronic bronchitis and gastro-oesophageal reflux.
Epidemiological studies give widely different patterns of incidence. The
different conditions that cause cough have in common the fact that the
cough is mediated via the vagus nerves, with sensory receptors in and
under the epithelium from the larynx down to the smaller bronchi. These
receptors are polymodal, responding to a large variety of stimuli,
including mechanical and chemical irritants, inflammatory mediators,
intraluminal material and large volume changes of the lungs. With
irritation and inflammation, C fibre receptors release neurokinins such
as substance P, which in turn stimulate cough receptors. The central
nervous pathways for the cough reflex are poorly understood. They
can be activated or inhibited voluntarily. Studies on the pharmacology
of the central nervous pathways of coughing are opening up new
therapeutic possibilities. Other new therapies include drugs acting on
the sensory receptors for cough, thereby avoiding adverse central
Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2007;20(4):416-22.
The problem of cough and development of novel antitussives.
Department of Thoracic Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute,
Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK. email@example.com
Cough is a very common clinical symptom and current therapies are
largely ineffective, indicating a major unmet medial need. There is
a pressing need to develop novel and safe antitussive therapies. This
is likely to arise from better understanding of the sensory nerves
involved in cough and the signalling pathways that are activated. A
major therapeutic target should be sensitization of the cough reflex
which is a feature of patients with both acute (virally induced) cough
and chronic cough, including chronic idiopathic cough. Studies on human
cough mechanisms are limited. There are several novel therapeutic
approaches that are currently being explored. Perhaps the most
promising drugs are transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV(1))
antagonists, selective cannabinoid agonists (CB2 agonists), maxi-K
channel openers and P2X3 antagonists. New cough therapies may target
airway nerve sensitization and may best be delivered as inhalers to
minimize any systemic effects. Understanding the intercellular
signalling pathways involved in nociception may lead to novel drugs,
such as p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors, being
used in the treatment of cough in the future. It is also likely that
several novel treatments that are developed as analgesics will also
prove to be beneficial in the treatment of cough.
Pages about coughing:
- Dry cough (symptoms and causes)
- Cause of cough
rid of cough
- Stop coughing
- Stop cough at night
- Cure cough
- Cough treatment.
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