Breath Holding Time Results for Sick People: Low Body Oxygen
Medical and physiological research articles about BHT (breath holding time test done after usual exhalation and only until initial discomfort) or CP (Control Pause or Buteyko Control Pause - see the link to the test below), or body oxygen level in people with chronic diseases.
On the graph below, the numbers of patients are provided in brackets. For example, "Hypertension (95)" means that 95 hypertension patients were studied. The body-oxygen level (breath holding time) for all groups of sick people was measured in seconds.
|Body Oxygen or
Control Pause, s
|Hypertension||95||12 s||Ayman et al, 1939|
|Neurocirculatory asthenia||54||16 s||Friedman, 1945|
|Anxiety states||62||20 s||Mirsky et al, 1946|
|Class 1 heart patients||16||16 s||Kohn & Cutcher, 1970|
|Class 2-3 heart patients||53||13 s||Kohn & Cutcher, 1970|
|Pulmonary emphysema||3||8 s||Kohn & Cutcher, 1970|
|Functional heart disease||13||5 s||Kohn & Cutcher, 1970|
|Asymptomatic asthmatics||7||20 s||Davidson et al, 1974|
|Asthmatics with symptoms||13||11 s||Perez-Padilla et al, 1989|
|Panic attack||14||11 s||Zandbergen et al, 1992|
|Anxiety disorders||14||16 s||Zandbergen et al, 1992|
|Outpatients||25||17 s||Gay et al, 1994|
|Inpatients||25||10 s||Gay et al, 1994|
|COPD and congenital heart failure||7||8 s||Gay et al, 1994|
|12 heavy smokers||12||8 s||Gay et al, 1994|
|Panic disorder||23||16 s||Asmudson & Stein, 1994|
|Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome||30||20 s||Taskar et al, 1995|
|Successful lung transplantation||9||23 s||Flume et al, 1996|
|Successful heart transplantation||8||28 s||Flume et al, 1996|
|Outpatients with COPD||87||8 s||Marks et al, 1997|
|Asthma||55||14 s||Nannini et al, 2007|
Again as before, breath holding can be done in different conditions (e.g., after normal inhalation, or exhalation, or after taking a very deep inhalation, or after a complete exhalation, until first stress or as long as possible). However, in order to find body-oxygen levels in these sick people, it is logical to use normal conditions: usual exhalation (or at functional residual capacity = volume of air in the lungs at normal expiration) and stress-free version of the test (no pushing the patient for better numbers and no gasping after the test). If you are interested in these details, visit Body Oxygen Complete Table for Sick People and see how these different tests were standardized.
These Control Pause values or body-oxygen levels for sick people can be compared with Normal Breath Holding Time - Control Pause in Healthy People.
Doctor Buteyko and his MDs tested thousands of patients
and found that the following relationships, in general, hold true in relation to
1-10 s - severely sick, terminally and critically ill patients, usually hospitalized.
10-20 s - sick patients with numerous symptoms, complaints and, often, on daily medication.
20-40 s - people with poor health (no major symptoms), often without serious organic problems.
40-60 s - good or normal health.
Over 60 s - ideal health, when many chronic diseases are virtually impossible.
My own practical experience with hundreds of Buteyko students, who were previously sick or very sick, and other people completely agrees with these findings.
Conclusion: Sick people have low body-oxygen levels and shorter breath holding time results due to heavy breathing (see the Homepage for modern average breathing rates).
Reference pages: Breathing norms and the DIY body oxygen test:
- Breathing norms: Parameters, graph, and description of the normal breathing pattern
- Body-oxygen test (CP test) : How to measure your own breathing and body oxygenation (two in one) using a simple DIY test
References: pages about CO2 effect:
- Vasodilation: CO2 expands arteries and arterioles facilitating perfusion (or blood supply) to all vital organs
- The Bohr effect: How and why oxygen is released by red blood cells in body tissues
- Nerve stabilization: Carbon dioxide has powerful calmative and sedative effects on brain neurons and nerve cells
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