Breath Holding Time Results for Sick People: Low Body Oxygen
Medical and physiological research articles about BHT (breath holding time test done after usual exhalation and only until initial discomfort) or CP (Control Pause or Buteyko Control Pause - see the link to the test below), or body oxygen level in people with chronic diseases.
On the graph below, the numbers of patients are provided in brackets. For example, "Hypertension (95)" means that 95 hypertension patients were studied. The body-oxygen level (breath holding time) for all groups of sick people was measured in seconds.
|Body Oxygen or
Control Pause, s
|Hypertension||95||12 s||Ayman et al, 1939|
|Neurocirculatory asthenia||54||16 s||Friedman, 1945|
|Anxiety states||62||20 s||Mirsky et al, 1946|
|Class 1 heart patients||16||16 s||Kohn & Cutcher, 1970|
|Class 2-3 heart patients||53||13 s||Kohn & Cutcher, 1970|
|Pulmonary emphysema||3||8 s||Kohn & Cutcher, 1970|
|Functional heart disease||13||5 s||Kohn & Cutcher, 1970|
|Asymptomatic asthmatics||7||20 s||Davidson et al, 1974|
|Asthmatics with symptoms||13||11 s||Perez-Padilla et al, 1989|
|Panic attack||14||11 s||Zandbergen et al, 1992|
|Anxiety disorders||14||16 s||Zandbergen et al, 1992|
|Outpatients||25||17 s||Gay et al, 1994|
|Inpatients||25||10 s||Gay et al, 1994|
|COPD and congenital heart failure||7||8 s||Gay et al, 1994|
|12 heavy smokers||12||8 s||Gay et al, 1994|
|Panic disorder||23||16 s||Asmudson & Stein, 1994|
|Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome||30||20 s||Taskar et al, 1995|
|Successful lung transplantation||9||23 s||Flume et al, 1996|
|Successful heart transplantation||8||28 s||Flume et al, 1996|
|Outpatients with COPD||87||8 s||Marks et al, 1997|
|Asthma||55||14 s||Nannini et al, 2007|
In these studies, breath holding tests were perfored in different conditions. Some studies applied the test after a large or deep inhalation, others after a normal inhalation. There were studies that conducted BHT measurements until as long as possible, while some some only until the initial stress. However, in order to find body-oxygen levels in these sick people, it is logical to use normal conditions: usual exhalation (or at functional residual capacity = volume of air in the lungs at normal expiration) and stress-free version of the test (no pushing the patient for better numbers and no gasping after the test). For all these details, visit Complete BHT Table for Sick People .
These Control Pause values or body-oxygen levels for sick people can be compared with Normal Breath Holding Time - Control Pause in Healthy People.
Soviet MDs tested thousands of their patients and found the
1-10 s - terminally and critically ill patients, severely sick, most likely hospitalized
10-20 s - sick patients who have numerous symptoms and, very possibly, on daily medical drugs
20-40 s - people who have poor health (but no major symptoms and often without serious diagnosed problems)
40-60 s - good or normal health.
Over 60 s - ideal or normal health: chronic health conditions cannot appear.
My own practical experience with hundreds of Buteyko students, who were previously sick or very sick, and other people completely agrees with these findings.
Conclusion: Sick people have low body-oxygen levels and shorter breath holding time results due to heavy breathing (see the Homepage for modern average breathing rates).
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