HIV-AIDS Cause on a Cell Level: Low Body Oxygen
What causes the progression of HIV-AIDS on a cell level? A critically low body or cell oxygen level (tissue hypoxia) as the central HIV-AIDS cause on a cellular level have been suggested and confirmed by numerous medical studies (Wang et al, 1993; Mootsikapun et al, 1996; Khare & Sharland, 1999; Pellicelli et al, 2001; Zhang et al, 2002; Deshmane et al, 2009; Long et al, 2009). In particular, more recent studies conducted in the Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology of the Louis Pasteur Hospital (Nice, France) observed that a higher expression of the hypoxia-inducable factor -1 was associated with Kaposi sarcoma progression (Long et al, 2009).
Why could people with HIV have abnormally low body oxygenation?
Other medical studies found that severely sick HIV-AIDS patients (Stage 4: Progression from HIV to AIDS) have very large respiratory rates. Their average breathing frequency at rest was 29 to 49 breaths per minute in one study (Zhongguo et al, 2004), and about 30 breaths/min in another (Montaner et al,1993), while the medical norm for adults is 10-12 breaths/min. A high respiratory rate was a normal clinical finding for 59 HIV-AIDS patients with interstitial infiltrates on chest radiographs (Knauer et al, 2005). This group of the severely sick patients had tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), bacterial pneumonia (20.3%) and fungal pneumonia (10.2%).
Another cardiorespiratory parameter (the heart rate) was measured in 2 of these studies. The Chinese study (Zhongguo et al, 2004) found that the pulse of their HIV-AIDS patients ranged from 89 to 145 beats/min, while the Canadian doctors reported that their patients had the average pulse of 100 beats per minute (Montaner et al,1993). All this evidence points out the main physiological cause of HIV-AIDS progression.
It is known that chronic hyperventilation leads to elevated heart rates in many groups of patients (e.g., asthma, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and many other conditions). Generally, the advance of any respiratory and/or inflammatory condition is manifested in higher heart rates, as it is reflected in the Buteyko Table of Health Zones. Hence, the results testify about the presence of severe hyperventilation in all these patients.
Hence, the cause of HIV-AIDS is ineffective breathing and classical symptoms of hyperventilation have been known to medical professionals for many decades. They include: poor perfusion of all vital organs due to hypocapnia, reduced cell oxygen content due to CO2-induced vasoconstriction and the suppressed Bohr effect, immune dysfunction caused by cell hypoxia, mental symptoms due to low CO2 and O2 levels in the brain, and hundreds of other abnormalities that affect virtually all chemical reactions and processes in the human body, as well as all vital organs.
The HIV virus does not cause the development of AIDS and death. All symptoms, including changes in the lungs, the development of yeast infections (Candida), skin rashes and many others take place naturally in other people due to presence of hyperventilation. Hence, the HIV virus simply reinforces pathological effects caused by hyperventilation. In order to check these findings, a patient should find his respiratory parameters and see how these parameters relate to his symptoms.
HIV/AIDS clinical trial reveals the cause of HIV-AIDS
Russian doctors practicing the Buteyko breathing method had a clinical trial for a group of HIV patients with very encouraging results. For these doctors the body oxygen level (CP test - see instructions below) is the main measuring tool of personal health. They discovered that with a higher body oxygen content or CP (due to breathing exercises and lifestyle changes), typical manifestations of HIV-AIDS disappear. Thus, the participants had their standard medication and practiced breath work, as a supplementary technique to fight HIV-AIDS and effects of hypoxia. I translated the official report about this HIV-AIDS clinical trial.
Abnormal breathing causes HIV-AIDS
What are the usual results for the body-oxygen test for HIV-AIDS patients? The results, according to Russian clinical research, are linked with these typical symptoms and effects:
The natural and stress-free body-oxygen test is also valuable in numerous situations to check the effects of various factors, including sleep, exercise, diet, etc. on the HIV-AIDS cause. To increase body oxygen test results and slow down breathing rates are the central goals of the Buteyko method. What reduces one's body oxygen level? The main physiological factors include a lack of physical activity, exercise with mouth breathing, sleeping too long and/or on the back, overeating, overheating, stress, poor posture and many others.
Hence, breathing retraining or the normalization of breathing parameters is necessary for faster health restoration. Furthermore, any HIV-AIDS treatment program must have breathing techniques as a necessary part for health restoration and the elimination of the main physiological cause of HIV-AIDS.
All HIV-AIDS web pages:
HIV-AIDS Cause - Suppression of the immune system can take place only due to low oxygen levels in body cells. Therefore, tissue hypoxia, due to abnormal breathing in people with HIV-AIDS, is the cause
HIV-AIDS Therapy - Improve body oxygenation with breathing retraining (you need to change your automatic breathing patterns in order to have more oxygen in the body 24/7)
HIV-AIDS Clinical Trial - Breathing exercises reverse typical signs and symptoms of advanced HIV-AIDS.
Reference pages: Breathing norms and the DIY body oxygen test:
- Breathing norms: Parameters, graph, and description of the normal breathing pattern
- Body-oxygen test (CP test) : How to measure your own breathing and body oxygenation (two in one) using a simple DIY test
References: pages about CO2 effect:
- Vasodilation: CO2 expands arteries and arterioles facilitating perfusion (or blood supply) to all vital organs
- The Bohr effect: How and why oxygen is released by red blood cells in body tissues
- Nerve stabilization: Carbon dioxide has powerful calmative and sedative effects on brain neurons and nerve cells
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2004 May;16(5):284-6.
[Study of infusion of oxygen-enriched liquid to correct severe hypoxemia in infectious diseases: a report of pilot clinical study]
[Article in Chinese]
He Q, Xu C, Wang S, Cui JJ, Duan G, Ye TS, Yang DG, Zhou BP, Zhao LS.
Donghu Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518020, Guangdong, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a new therapy for effectively correcting severe hypoxemia in patients with infectious diseases by infusion of oxygen-enriched liquid, in order to raise the partial pressure of blood oxygen without passing through pathologically damaged alveoli of such patients.
METHODS: Intravenous drip with oxygen-enriched liquids was given to 6 cases suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and 3 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the course of treatment for 1 to 5 days, 500-700 ml per day.
RESULTS: For all the 9 SARS cases, their hypoxemia was gradually corrected to normal in 20 minutes' or 4 hours' intravenous drip with oxygen-enriched liquid. Respiratory rate decreased from 29-49 breath/min to 18-22 breath/min, heart rate decreased from 89-145 beats/min to 60-79 beats/min, two faint patients regained consciousness, hypoxemia was redressed, partial pressure of oxygen in artery increased from 56 mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) to 87 mm Hg, saturation of oxygen increased from 0.89 to 0.96.
CONCLUSION: Intravenous drip of the oxygen-enriched liquid effectively helped correct the hypoxemia of SARS and other infectious diseases cases by bypassing the diseased alveoli through which oxygen would not pass into the blood by conventional oxygen inhalation. This therapy of oxygen-enriched liquid infusion could be quite life-saving in the combined treatment for SARS and other infectious diseases.
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005;117 Suppl 4:49-55.
Clinical features, aetiology and short-term outcome of interstitial pneumonitis in HIV/AIDS patients at Bamrasnaradura Hospital, Nonthaburi, Thailand.
Knauer A, Das AK, Tansuphasawadikul S, Supanaranond W, Pitisuttithum P, Wernsdorfer WH.
Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
This prospective study was conducted at Bamrasnaradura Hospital from November 11, 2002, until January 5, 2003, in order to describe the clinical manifestations and determine the aetiologies as well as to assess the short-term outcome of interstitial pneumonitis in HIV/AIDS patients. 59 patients with interstitial infiltrates on chest radiographs were included in the study. Tuberculosis (TB) was the most common diagnosis (44%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (25.4%), bacterial pneumonia (20.3%) and fungal pneumonia (10.2%). In TB, compared to other diagnoses, a mild cough (p = 0.031), pallor (p = 0.021), lymphadenopathy (p < 0.001), an absence of skin lesions (p = 0.003), a higher mean body temperature (p = 0.004) and an absence of dyspnoea on exertion (p = 0.042) were significant findings. In PCP, compared to other diagnoses, dyspnoea on exertion (p = 0.014), nonpurulent sputum production (p = 0.047), a higher mean respiratory rate (p < 0.001), and an absence of lymphadenopathy (p < 0.001) were significant factors. In bacterial pneumonia, compared to other diagnoses, production of purulent sputum (p = 0.014), haemoptysis (p = 0.006), skin lesions (p = 0.002) and severe cough (p = 0.040) were significantly associated factors. In fungal pneumonia, compared to other diagnoses, headache and papulonecrotic skin lesions were common findings, but no factor showed a significant association. After four weeks, 59.3% patients were alive and 13.6% had died. Among those alive, 88.6% had clinically improved. The cumulative survival after 28 days was highest among PCP patients, followed by bacterial pneumonia, TB and fungal pneumonia, but these differences were statistically not significant (p = 0.453).
Virchows Arch. 2009 Aug;455(2):159-70. Epub 2009 May 30.
LANA-1, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and HIF-1alpha protein expression in HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma.
Long E, Ilie M, Hofman V, Havet K, Selva E, Butori C, Lacour JP, Nelson AM, Cathomas G, Hofman P.
Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Louis Pasteur Hospital, Nice 06002, France.
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is necessary for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to develop, but whether the tissue viral load is a marker of KS progression is still unclear. Little is known about the level of expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins and of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in KS tumour cells relative to HHV8 expression. We therefore investigated the expression of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) of HHV8, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bax, Bcl-xL, caspase 3 and HIF-1alphain KS tissue specimens at different stages of the disease. The expression of these proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically using tissue microarrays (TMAs) in tissue specimens from 245 HIV-positive patients at different stages of the disease. Both LANA-1 and HIF-1alpha were expressed in KS biopsies taken at different stages, but their level increased throughout tumour progression. Additionally, the levels of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 were higher in visceral KS lesions compared to levels observed in cutaneous and mucosal KS. This study demonstrates that late tumour stages of KS in tissues from HIV-positive patients are associated with high levels of LANA-1, HIF-1alpha and of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Finally, the expression of these proteins can be potentially used as a tissue biomarker in defining patients with a higher risk of disease progression.
J Biol Chem. 2009 Apr 24;284(17):11364-73. Epub 2009 Feb 9.
Activation of the oxidative stress pathway by HIV-1 Vpr leads to induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression.
Deshmane SL, Mukerjee R, Fan S, Del Valle L, Michiels C, Sweet T, Rom I, Khalili K, Rappaport J, Amini S, Sawaya BE.
Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neurovirology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA.
The detection of biomarkers of oxidative stress in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV)-associated dementia indicates the involvement of stress pathways in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. Although the biological importance of oxidative stress on events involved in AIDS neuropathogenesis and the HIV-1 proteins responsible for oxidative stress remain to be elucidated, our results point to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) upon HIV-1 infection and its elevation in brain cells of AIDS patients with dementia. HIF-1 is a transcription factor that is responsive to oxygen. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha becomes stable and translocates to the nucleus where it dimerizes with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and modulates gene transcription. Activation of HIF-1 can also be mediated by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr. In addition, cellular components, including reactive oxygen species, contribute to the induction of HIF-1alpha. Our results show that Vpr induces reactive oxygen species by increasing H(2)O(2) production, which can contribute to HIF-1alpha accumulation. Interestingly, increased levels of HIF-1alpha stimulated HIV-1 gene transcription through HIF-1 association with HIV-1 long terminal repeat. These observations point to the existence of a positive feedback interplay between HIF-1alpha and Vpr and that, by inducing oxidative stress via activation of HIF-1, Vpr can induce HIV-1 gene expression and dysregulate multiple host cellular pathways.
Med Hypotheses. 2002 Jun;58(6):439-43.
Human-bacteria nitric oxide cycles in HIV-1 infection.
Zhang H, Boring D, Haverkos H.
Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Division of Antiviral Drug Products, Rockville, USA.
...In HIV infection, however, the NO(3)(-) is converted into NO and nitrite NO(2)(-) and recirculated in the body, perhaps as a result of concomitant opportunistic bacterial infections and cellular hypoxia...
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Nov;946:82-94.
Pathogenesis of HIV-related pulmonary hypertension.
Pellicelli AM, Palmieri F, Cicalini S, Petrosillo N.
Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive, Lazzaro Spallanzani, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
...Chronic hypoxia is observed with increased frequency in HIV patients...
Indian J Pediatr. 1999 Nov-Dec;66(6):895-904.
Pulmonary manifestations of pediatric HIV infection.
Khare MD, Sharland M.
Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, St. George's Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
Vertically acquired HIV infection is becoming increasingly common in India. The main clinical manifestations of HIV in childhood are growth failure, lymphadenopathy, chronic cough and fever, recurrent pulmonary infections, and persistent diarrhea... The commonest AIDS diagnosis in infancy is PCP, presenting in infancy with tachypnea, hypoxia, and bilateral opacification on chest-X-ray (CXR)...
J Med Assoc Thai. 1996 Aug;79(8):477-85.
Pulmonary infections in HIV infected patients.
Mootsikapun P, Chetchotisakd P, Intarapoka B.
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.
We retrospectively reviewed causes, clinical presentations and chest radiographs of pulmonary infections in symptomatic HIV infected patients diagnosed in Srinagarind Hospital from February 1992 to 1994. We found 95 episodes of pulmonary infections in 88 HIV infected patients enrolled in our review. The three most common pathogens were Mycobacterium tuberculosis (37.2%), Pneumocystis carinii (23.8%), and Cryptococcus (15.2%). Coexistent pulmonary infections were seen in 10.5 per cent, mostly due to P. carinii and Cryptococcus neoformans. Extrapulmonary infections were also common, particularly with M. tuberculosis (49%) and C. neoformans (100%). The common clinical presentations were fever, dyspnea, and cough which frequency varied among the organisms. Chest radiographs were nonspecific, the most common finding was bilateral pulmonary infiltrates except that bacterial pneumonia usually presented with unilateral infiltrates. All patients wit PC had significant hypoxia (PaO2 < 70 mmHg)...
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