Chronic Inflammation Causes and Treatment
inflammation, according to new research, is a process that is
essentially controlled by the electric potential (abundance or deficiency of free
electrons) of the organism. What has been taught and known for decades is an
artificial scenario that models the situation based on our modern abnormal
In our current understanding, inflammation is a response of the immune system to
injury. As a part of this response, the immune system sends white blood cells
to the site of injury. These white cells include neutrophils that produce an oxidative burst
in the injured area. The neutrophils release reactive oxygen- and reactive
nitrogen species (also known as free radicals) in order to efficiently destroy
pathogens (bacteria) that usually penetrate across the skin into the human body.
These free radicals also break apart damaged cells so as
to rebuild healthy tissue and ensure healing. This process of destruction is
based on chemical aggressiveness of free radicals based on their ability to
"steal" electrons from other molecules.
Now we come to the main problem that causes chronic nflammation. Together with
destruction of damaged
cells, free radicals also leak into surrounding areas and destroy healthy cells
causing the classic quintet of hallmarks of inflammation: PRISH or Pain,
Redness, Immobility (loss of function), Swelling and Heat. However, this
(abnormal) scenario takes place in modern humans (and during animal
studies) only in conditions of electrical insulation from Earth and results from electron deficiency.
Body electricity and constant inflammation
Humans, just several generations ago, used to be electrically grounded to Earth (due to barefoot life and
absence of artificial fabrics) for nearly 24/7 just several generations ago, and
this provided the human body with a slightly negative electrical charge that
corresponds to Earth's negative potential. However, nearly all modern research is performed on
insulated humans and animals who have a positive charge or electron deficiency.
What are the effects? Let us consider the key problem associated with
Grounding the human body results in deactivation of free radicals in healthy
tissues since Earth can provide an abundant supply of electrons to neutralize
free radicals, prevent damage of healthy cells, and "quench"
chronic inflammation. As a result, grounding,
within 10-30 minutes, reduces chronic inflammation and pain. Here is a link to one of the
studies that provides references and thermal images related to effects of grounding
Therefore, the first and easy step in order to reduce chronic inflammation is to provide
free electrons for the body or ensure those natural conditions that existed during human
and animal evolution.
However, this is not the end of the story. Chronic inflammation
also requires low blood supply and reduced O2 levels in tissues (cell hypoxia).
Another cause of constant inflammation
We see that sick people are affected by chronic overbreathing that leads to
tissue hypoxia (regardless of the ventilation-perfusion mismatch and CO2 levels
in the arterial blood). Among other factors associated with chronic inflammation, according to recent research studies, are
pro-inflammatory transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B
(NF-kappaB), activator protein (AP)-1
(Safronova & Morita, 2010; Ryan et al, 2009), and hypoxia-inducible
factor 1 (Imtiyaz & Simon, 2010; Sumbayev & Nicholas, 2010).
Therefore, hyperventilation (or breathing more than the medical norms) is an additional effect and cause of
in modern people.
Constant Inflammation Treatment
In order to reduce chronic inflammation we need to breathe slower and less
24/7. Why is this
so? We need more oxygen in tissues to normalize key physiological processes and eliminate symptoms of chronic diseases and chronic
inflammation. Just Earthing is not enough.
Hence, fast and effective treatment of chronic inflammation is based on:
- grounding yourself by standing on Earth barefoot or using methods for grounding during sleep
and work (here are more details for practical steps: Earthing)
- restoration of normal breathing parameters in order to increase body
oxygenation and normalize chief physiological parameters.
Furthermore, prevention and avoidance of allergic reactions leading to chronic inflammation is necessary
for clinical remission of chronic inflammation. Upon achievement of
about 35-40 s for the body-oxygen test (this corresponds
to the medical norm for breathing), different types of chronic
inflammation disappear within 2-3 weeks or even faster. This is true for asthma,
bronchitis, gastritis, sinusitis, pancreatitis, duodenitis, hepatitis, arthritis, problems with liver, and many
others conditions. Furthermore, Russian Buteyko breathing doctors had a
successful clinical trial on patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis B, while thousands
of their patients solved problems with
chronic inflammation using breathing retraining.
Lancet. 1999 Oct 9;354(9186):1283-6.
Carbon dioxide and the critically ill--too little of a good thing?
Laffey JG, Kavanagh BP.
Department of Anaesthesia and Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit,
Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Permissive hypercapnia (acceptance of raised concentrations of carbon
dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients) may be associated with
increased survival as a result of less ventilator-associated lung
injury. Conversely, hypocapnia is associated with many acute illnesses (eg, asthma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, pulmonary oedema), and is thought to reflect underlying hyperventilation.
Accumulating clinical and basic scientific evidence points to an active
role for carbon dioxide in organ injury, in which raised concentrations
of carbon dioxide are protective, and low concentrations are injurious.
We hypothesise that therapeutic hypercapnia might be tested in severely
ill patients to see whether supplemental carbon dioxide could reduce
the adverse effects of hypocapnia and promote the beneficial effects of
hypercapnia. Such an approach could also expand our understanding of
the pathogenesis of disorders in which hypocapnia is a constitutive
Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2010 Aug;15(4):411-5.
Inflammation and the balance of Treg and Th17 cells in transplant
rejection and tolerance.
Hanidziar D, Koulmanda M.
Transplant Institute, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess
Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation of the allograft, occurring as a
consequence of hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury, adversely
influences short-term and long-term transplant outcomes. Thus far,
imbalance of tissue-protective Treg and tissue-destructive Th17 cells
has been confirmed in a number of tissue-inflammatory states, including
autoimmune disease. Hence, benefits of tilting Treg-Th17 equilibrium
toward dominance of Tregs may promote transplant tolerance.
RECENT FINDINGS: Adverse graft inflammation creates extreme resistance
to the induction of donor-specific tolerance. Proinflammatory
cytokines, when abundantly expressed within the graft and draining
lymph nodes, prevent commitment of donor-activated T cells into
graft-protective, T-regulatory phenotype, while fostering generation of
donor-reactive Th1, Th2 or Th17 effector subsets. In addition, the
inflammatory milieu may destabilize the program of both natural and
induced Tregs, converting them into inflammatory, effector-like
phenotypes. Therefore permanent, Treg-dependent acceptance of an
allograft may not be achieved without limiting adverse tissue
SUMMARY: Balance of graft-protective regulatory and graft-destructive
effector T cells largely depends on the balance of proinflammatory and
anti-inflammatory cytokines in the milieu, in which donor-directed
T-cell response occurs. In the absence of proinflammatory cytokines,
the constitutive expression of TGF-beta may guide recipient T cells
into a tissue-protective, pro-tolerant mode. Therefore, targeting
adverse tissue inflammation may represent a powerful means to tilt
antidonor immunity towards tolerance.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010;345:105-20.
Hypoxia-inducible factors as essential regulators of inflammation.
Imtiyaz HZ, Simon MC.
Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania,
438 BRB II/III, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6160, USA.
Myeloid cells provide important functions in low oxygen (O(2))
environments created by pathophysiological conditions, including sites
of infection, inflammation, tissue injury, and solid tumors.
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are principle regulators of hypoxic
adaptation, regulating gene expression involved in glycolysis,
erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, proliferation, and stem cell function
under low O(2). Interestingly, increasing evidence accumulated over
recent years suggests an additional important regulatory role for HIFs
in inflammation. In macrophages, HIFs not only regulate glycolytic
energy generation, but also optimize innate immunity, control
pro-inflammatory gene expression, mediate bacterial killing and
influence cell migration. In neutrophils, HIF-1a promotes survival
under O(2)-deprived conditions and mediates blood vessel extravasation
by modulating ▀ (2) integrin expression. Additionally, HIFs contribute
to inflammatory functions in various other components of innate
immunity, such as dendritic cells, mast cells, and epithelial cells.
This review will dissect the role of each HIF isoform in myeloid cell
function and discuss their impact on acute and chronic inflammatory
disorders. Currently, intensive studies are being conducted to
illustrate the connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis.
Detailed investigation revealing interaction between microenvironmental
factors such as hypoxia and immune cells is needed. We will also
discuss how hypoxia and HIFs control properties of tumor-associated
macrophages and their relationship to tumor formation and progression.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2010 Aug;58(4):287-94. Epub 2010 May
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 as one of the "signaling drivers" of
Toll-like receptor-dependent and allergic inflammation.
Sumbayev VV, Nicholas SA.
Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent, Anson Building, Central
Chatham Maritime, Kent ME44TB, UK. V.Sumbayev@kent.ac.uk
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription
complex which plays a crucial role in cellular adaptation to low oxygen
availability. In the last years there has been increasing evidence
about the role of this factor in inflammatory/innate immune reactions.
It has also been found to contribute to different types of allergic
Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010:585989. Epub 2010 Apr 20.
Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: may
adipose tissue play a role? Review of the literature and future
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Tuberculosis, Faculty of
Medicine, P J Safarik University, L. Pasteur Teaching Hospital, Kosice,
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of
morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low-grade systemic inflammation is
considered a hallmark of COPD that potentially links COPD to increased
rate of systemic manifestations of the disease. Obesity with/without
the metabolic syndrome and cachexia represent two poles of metabolic
abnormalities that may relate to systemic inflammation. On one hand
systemic inflammatory syndrome likely reflects inflammation in the
lungs, i.e. results from lung-to plasma spillover of inflammatory
mediators. On the other hand, obesity-related hypoxia results in
local inflammatory response within adipose tissue per se, and may
contribute to elevations in circulatory mediators by spillover from the
adipose tissue to the systemic compartment. The extent to which
systemic hypoxia contributes to the adipose tissue inflammation remains
unknown. We assume that in patients with COPD and concurrent obesity at
least three factors play a role in the systemic inflammatory syndrome:
the severity of pulmonary impairment, the degree of obesity-related
adipose tissue hypoxia, and the severity of systemic hypoxia due to
reduced pulmonary functions. The present review summarizes the
epidemiological and clinical evidence linking COPD to obesity, the role
of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ, and the role of hypoxia in
adipose tissue inflammation.
J Dent Res. 2010 May;89(5):430-44. Epub 2010 Mar 26.
Transcriptome remodeling in hypoxic inflammation.
Safronova O, Morita I.
Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and
Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan.
Hypoxia is an integral component of the inflamed tissue
microenvironment. Today, the influence of hypoxia on the natural
evolution of inflammatory responses is widely accepted; however, many
molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this relationship remain to
be clarified. Hypoxic stress affects several independent
transcriptional regulators related to inflammation in which HIF-1 and
NF-kappaB play central roles. Transcription factors interact with both
HATs and HDACs, which are components of large multiprotein
co-regulatory complexes. This review summarizes the current knowledge
on hypoxia-responsive transcriptional pathways in inflammation and
their importance in the etiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, with
the primary focus on transcriptional co-regulators and histone
modifications in defining gene-specific transcriptional responses in
hypoxia, and on the recent progress in the understanding of
hypoxia-mediated epigenetic reprogramming. Furthermore, this review
discusses the molecular cross-talk between glucocorticoid
anti-inflammatory pathways and hypoxia.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;662:27-32.
Alveolar hypoxia-induced systemic inflammation: what low PO(2) does
and does not do.
Gonzalez NC, Wood JG.
Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of
Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. email@example.com
Reduction of alveolar PO(2) (alveolar hypoxia, AH) may occur in
pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD), or in healthy individuals ascending to altitude. Altitude
illnesses may develop in non-acclimatized persons who ascend rapidly.
The mechanisms underlying these illnesses are not well understood, and
systemic inflammation has been suggested as a possible contributor.
Similarly, there is evidence of systemic inflammation in the systemic
alterations present in COPD patients, although its role as a causative
factor is not clear. We have observed that AH, induced by breathing 10%
O(2) produces a rapid (minutes) and widespread micro vascular
inflammation in rats and mice. This inflammation has been observed
directly in the mesenteric, skeletal muscle, and pial
microcirculations. The inflammation is characterized by mast cell
degranulation, generation of reactive O(2) species, reduced nitric
oxide levels, increased leukocyte-endothelial adherence in
post-capillary venules, and extravasation of albumin. Activated
mast cells stimulate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which leads to
the inflammatory response via activation of NADPH oxidase. If the
animals remain in hypoxia for several days, the inflammation resolves
and exposure to lower PO(2) does not elicit further inflammation,
suggesting that the vascular endothelium has "acclimatized" to hypoxia.
Recent experiments in cremaster microcirculation suggest that the
initial trigger of the inflammation is not the reduced tissue PO(2),
but rather an intermediary released by alveolar macrophages into the
circulation. The putative intermediary activates mast cells, which, in
turn, stimulate the local renin-angiotensin system and induce
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2009 Nov;13(11):1267-77.
Targeting the A2B adenosine receptor during gastrointestinal ischemia
Eltzschig HK, Rivera-Nieves J, Colgan SP.
University of Colorado, Mucosal Inflammation Program, Department of
Medicine, Denver, 12700 E 19th Avenue, Mailstop B112, Research Complex
2, Room 7124, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
... In addition, we discuss the role of this pathway in dampening
hypoxia-elicited inflammation, specifically in the setting of
intestinal ischemia and inflammation.
Thorax. 2009 Jul;64(7):631-6.
Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of
cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?
Ryan S, Taylor CT, McNicholas WT.
Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin,
... Intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSAS, results in
activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear
factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1. These promote
activation of various inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes and
monocytes, with the downstream consequence of expression of
pro-inflammatory mediators that may lead to endothelial dysfunction.
This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence for an
association between OSAS, inflammation and cardiovascular disease,
discusses basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association
and proposes future research possibilities.
Respir Res. 2009 Jun 22;10:54.
Alveolar hypoxia, alveolar macrophages, and systemic inflammation.
Chao J, Wood JG, Gonzalez NC.
Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of
Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. email@example.com
... Evidence obtained in intact animals and in primary cell
cultures indicate that alveolar macrophages activated by hypoxia
release a mediators into the circulation. This mediator activates
perivascular mast cells and initiates a widespread systemic
inflammation. The inflammatory cascade includes activation of the local
renin-angiotensin system and results in increased leukocyte-endothelial
interactions in post-capillary venules, increased microvascular levels
of reactive O2 species; and extravasation of albumin.
Eur Respir J. 2009 May;33(5):1195-205.
Cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: the
role of intermittent hypoxia and inflammation.
Garvey JF, Taylor CT, McNicholas WT.
Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent's University Hospital,
There is increasing evidence that intermittent hypoxia plays a role
in the development of cardiovascular risk in obstructive sleep apnoea
syndrome (OSAS) through the activation of inflammatory pathways....
Semin Immunopathol. 2009 Jun;31(1):113-25. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno-inflammation, and atherosclerosis.
Arnaud C, Dematteis M, Pepin JL, Baguet JP, LÚvy P.
INSERM ERI17, Grenoble, 38043, France.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder
leading to cardiovascular and metabolic complications. OSA is also a
multicomponent disorder, with intermittent hypoxia (IH) as the main
trigger for the associated cardiovascular and metabolic alterations.
Indeed, recurrent pharyngeal collapses during sleep lead to repetitive
sequences of hypoxia-reoxygenation. This IH (intermittent hypoxia)
induces several consequences such as hemodynamic, hormonometabolic,
oxidative, and immuno-inflammatory alterations that may interact and
aggravate each other, resulting in artery changes, from adaptive to
degenerative atherosclerotic remodeling.... Oxidative stress,
inflammation, and vascular remodeling can be directly triggered by IH,
further aggravated by the OSA-associated hormonometabolic alterations,
such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and adipokine imbalance.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11(1):215. Epub 2009 Feb 23.
Hypoxia. Regulation of NFkappaB signalling during inflammation: the
role of hydroxylases.
Oliver KM, Taylor CT, Cummins EP.
School of Medicine and Medical Science, Conway Institute, University
College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
... Microenvironmental hypoxia has long been identified as being
coincident with chronic inflammation...
Acta Med Port. 2008 Sep-Oct;21(5):489-96. Epub 2009 Jan 16.
[The role of adipose tissue and macrophages in chronic inflammation
associated with obesity: clinical implications].
[Article in Portuguese]
Ramalho R, GuimarŃes C.
Servišo e Laboratˇrio de Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina da
Universidade do Porto, Porto.
... so, hypoxia can be a critical factor in inflammatory obese
J Physiol. 2008 Sep 1;586(Pt 17):4055-9. Epub 2008 Jul 3.
Interdependent roles for hypoxia inducible factor and nuclear
UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4,
Decreased oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a hallmark feature of the
microenvironment in a number of chronic inflammatory conditions
including arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent
advances in our understanding of oxygen-dependent cell signaling have
uncovered several mechanisms by which hypoxia impacts upon the
development of inflammation through the coordinated expression of
adaptive, inflammatory and apoptotic genes...
Methods Enzymol. 2007;435:405-19.
Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors during inflammation.
Frede S, Berchner-Pfannschmidt U, Fandrey J.
Institut fŘr Physiologie, Universitńt Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
The microenvironment of inflamed and injured tissue is characterized
by low levels of oxygen and glucose and high levels of inflammatory
cytokines, reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species and metabolites....
Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2005;2(1):26-33.
Local and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary
Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Maastricht, P.O.
6202 As Maastricht, The Netherlands
There is growing evidence for systemic inflammation in chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)... The main causes of systemic
inflammation in COPD remain to be elucidated, although systemic hypoxia
is a candidate factor.
Ophthalmologe. 2003 May;100(5):363-70.
[Diabetic retinopathy. Pathophysiology and therapy of hypoxia-induced
[Article in German]
Joussen AM, Fauser S, Krohne TU, Lemmen KD, Lang GE, Kirchhof B.
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