Normal Respiratory Rate and Ideal Breathing
Definition. Respiratory rate (also known as ventilation rate, respiration rate, breathing rate, pulmonary ventilation rate, breathing frequency, and respiratory frequency or Rf) = the number of breaths a person takes during one minute. It is usually measured at rest, while sitting.
Medical research suggests that respiratory rate is the marker of pulmonary dysfunction that gets progressively worse with advance of a large number of chronic health conditions. This website has scientific references related to increased respiratory rates for adults with cancer patients, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, asthma, diabetes, COPD and many other conditions.
What is the normal respiratory frequency?
Medical textbooks suggest that the normal respiratory rate for adults is only 12 breaths per minute at rest. Older textbooks often provide even smaller values (e.g., 8-10 breaths per minute). Most modern adults breathe much faster (about 15-20 breaths per minute) than their normal respiratory rate. Respiratory rates in the sick are usually higher, generally about 20 breaths/min or more. This site quotes numerous studies that testify that respiratory rates in terminally sick people with cancer, HIV-AIDS, cystic fibrosis and other conditions is usually over 30 breaths/min.
Important note.You cannot define your own breathing rate by simply counting it. As soon as you try it, your breathing will be more deep and slow. You can ask other people to count it, when you are unaware about your breathing, or you can record your breathing using sensitive microphones fixed near your nose at night or when you sit quietly and are busy with some other activities. It is also possible to define your breathing frequency by asking other people to count the number of your breathing cycles during one minute when you are sleeping. (During sleep the respiratory frequency remains about the same as during wakeful states at rest, but the tidal volume or amplitude of breathing is reduced.)
What are the effects of increased respiratory rates?
When we breathe more than the medical norm, we lose CO2 and reduce body oxygenation due to vasoconstriction and the suppressed Bohr effect caused by hypocapnia (CO2 deficiency). Hence, overbreathing leads to reduced cell oxygenation, while slower and easier breathing (with lower respiratory rates) improves cell-oxygen content.
Normal pediatric respiratory rate for infants, newborn, toddlers, and children
(the source for this pediatric table is provided in references)
|Groups of children||Their ages||Normal respiratory rates|
|Newborns and infants||Up to 6 months old||30-60 breaths/min|
|Infants||6 to 12 months old||24-30 breaths/min|
|Toddlers and children||1 to 5 years old||20-30 breaths/min|
|Children||6 to 12 years||12-20 breaths/min|
More about rate of breathing and body oxygenation
From physiological viewpoint, the body-oxygen test or stress-free breath holding time after your usual exhalation is the more meaningful and important DIY test, than one's breathing frequency. If you have less than 20 s of oxygen in the morning (when you wake up), you are likely to have health problems.
Ideal Respiration Rate
Ideal respiration rate at rest for maximum possible brain- and body-oxygen levels corresponds to the automatic or unconscious breathing with only about 3-4 breaths per minute (see Buteyko Table of Health Zones for details). Bear in mind that this relates to one's basal breathing or unconscious breathing pattern at rest (e.g., during sleep, when reading, writing, etc.) The practical test for the ideal breathing pattern is to measure one's body oxygen level (see the link below). The person with ideal breathing has about 3 min for the body-oxygen test (after exhalation and without any forcing oneself). This corresponds to the maximum breath holding time of about 8 or more minutes (if breath holding is done after maximum inhalation and for as long as possible).
Resources and further info:
- Mouth Breathing in Children, Babies, Toddlers, and Infants: Its causes, effect, treatment, and prevention: This web page will help you to slow down the breathing of your children naturally
- Ideal breathing pattern
- Normal respiratory rates for children (from Healthwise - health.msn.com - this page is not available now.)
Reference pages: Breathing norms and the DIY body oxygen test:
- Breathing norms: Parameters, graph, and description of the normal breathing pattern
- Body-oxygen test (CP test) : How to measure your own breathing and body oxygenation (two in one) using a simple DIY test
References: pages about CO2 effect:
- Vasodilation: CO2 expands arteries and arterioles facilitating perfusion (or blood supply) to all vital organs
- The Bohr effect: How and why oxygen is released by red blood cells in body tissues
- Nerve stabilization: Carbon dioxide has powerful calmative and sedative effects on brain neurons and nerve cells
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