References for Table (Minute Ventilation in Normal Subjects)

- Updated on November 10, 2021

Hyperventilation Prevalence Table (Historical changes) at rest for normal subjects

AgeN. of
Healthy Subjects6-7 L/min>400Results of 14 studies
Normal breathing6 Medical textbooks
Normal subjects4.9 5Griffith et al, 1929
Normal males5.3±0.1   27-4346Shock et al, 1939
Normal females4.6±0.1   27-4340Shock et al, 1939
Normal subjects6.9±0.9100Matheson et al, 1950
Normal subjects9.1±4.531±711Kassabian et al, 1982
Normal subjects8.1±2.142±1411D’Alonzo et al, 1987
Normal subjects6.3±2.212Pain et al, 1988
Normal males13±340 (av.)12Clague et al, 1994
Normal subjects9.2±2.534±713Radwan et al, 1995
Normal subjects15±428-3412Dahan et al, 1995
Normal subjects12±455±1043Clark et al, 1995
Normal subjects12±241±210Tantucci et al, 1996
Normal subjects*11±353±1124Clark et al, 1997
Normal subjects8.1±0.434±263Meessen et al, 1997
Normal females9.920-2823Han et al, 1997
Normal males1520-2847Han et al, 1997
Normal females1029-6042Han et al, 1997
Normal males1129-6242Han et al, 1997
Normal subjects13±336±610Tantucci et al, 1997
Normal subjects12±165±210Epstein et al, 1996
Normal subjects12±112-6920Bowler et al, 1998
Normal subjects10±639±420DeLorey et al, 1999
Normal seniors12±470±314DeLorey et al, 1999
Normal elderly*14±388±211DeLorey et al, 1999
Normal subjects17±141±215Tantucci et al, 2001
Normal subjects10±0.510Bell et al, 2005
Normal subjects8.5±1.230±869Narkiewicz, 2006
Normal females10±0.411Ahuja et al, 2007
Normal subjects12±262±220Travers et al, 2008
AgeN. of


References for the Table (in the same order)

Griffith FR, Pucher GW, Brownell KA, Klein JD, Carmer ME, Studies in human physiology. IV. Vital capacity, respiratory rate and volume, and composition of the expired air. Am. J. Physiol 1929, vol. 89, p. 555.

Shock NW, Soley MH, Average Values for Basal Respiratory Functions in Adolescents and Adults, J. Nutrition, 1939, 18, p. 143.

Matheson HW, Gray JS, Ventilatory function tests. III Resting ventilation, metabolism, and derived measures, J Clin Invest 1950 June; 29(6): p. 688–692.

Kassabian J, Miller KD, Lavietes MH, Respiratory center output and ventilatory timing in patients with acute airway (asthma) and alveolar (pneumonia) disease, Chest 1982 May; 81(5): p.536-543.

D’Alonzo GE, Gianotti LA, Pohil RL, Reagle RR, DuRee SL, Fuentes F, Dantzker DR, Comparison of progressive exercise performance of normal subjects and patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, Chest 1987 Jul; 92(1): p.57-62.

Pain MC, Biddle N, Tiller JW, Panic disorder, the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide and respiratory variables, Psychosom Med 1988 Sep-Oct; 50(5): p. 541-548.

Clague JE, Carter J, Coakley J, Edwards RH, Calverley PM, Respiratory effort perception at rest and during carbon dioxide rebreathing in patients with dystrophia myotonica, Thorax 1994 Mar; 49(3): p.240-244.

Radwan L, Maszczyk Z, Koziorowski A, Koziej M, Cieslicki J, Sliwinski P, Zielinski J, Control of breathing in obstructive sleep apnoea and in patients with the overlap syndrome, Eur Respir J. 1995 Apr; 8(4): p.542-545.

Dahan A, van den Elsen MJ, Berkenbosch A, DeGoede J, Olievier IC, van Kleef JW, Halothane affects ventilatory afterdischarge in humans, Br J Anaesth 1995 May; 74(5): p.544-548.

Clark AL, Chua TP, Coats AJ, Anatomical dead space, ventilatory pattern, and exercise capacity in chronic heart failure, Br Heart J 1995 Oct; 74(4): p. 377-380.

Tantucci C, Bottini P, Dottorini ML, Puxeddu E, Casucci G, Scionti L, Sorbini CA, Ventilatory response to exercise in diabetic subjects with autonomic neuropathy, J Appl Physiol 1996, 81(5): p.1978–1986.

Clark AL, Volterrani M, Swan JW, Coats AJS, The increased ventilatory response to exercise in chronic heart failure: relation to pulmonary pathology, Heart 1997; 77: p.138-146.

Meessen NE, van der Grinten CP, Luijendijk SC, Folgering HT, Breathing pattern during bronchial challenge in humans, Eur Respir J 1997 May; 10(5): p.1059-1063.

Han JN, Stegen K, Simkens K, Cauberghs M, Schepers R, Van den Bergh O, Cl�ment J, Van de Woestijne KP, Unsteadiness of breathing in patients with hyperventilation syndrome and anxiety disorders, Eur Respir J 1997; 10: p. 167–176.

Tantucci C, Scionti L, Bottini P, Dottorini ML, Puxeddu E, Casucci G, Sorbini CA, Influence of autonomic neuropathy of different severities on the hypercapnic drive to breathing in diabetic patients, Chest. 1997 Jul; 112(1): 145-153.

Epstein SK, Zilberberg MD; Facoby C, Ciubotaru RL, Kaplan LM, Response to symptom-limited exercise in patients with the hepatopulmonary syndrome, Chest 1998; 114; p. 736-741.

Bowler SD, Green A, Mitchell CA, Buteyko breathing techniques in asthma: a blinded randomised controlled trial, Med J of Australia 1998; 169: p. 575-578.

DeLorey DS, Babb TG, Progressive mechanical ventilatory constraints with aging, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999 Jul; 160(1): p.169-177.

Tantucci C, Bottini P, Fiorani C, Dottorini ML, Santeusanio F, Provinciali L, Sorbini CA, Casucci G, Cerebrovascular reactivity and hypercapnic respiratory drive in diabetic autonomic neuropathy, J Appl Physiol 2001, 90: p. 889–896.

Bell HJ, Feenstra W, Duffin J, The initial phase of exercise hyperpnoea in humans is depressed during a cognitive task, Experimental Physiology 2005 May; 90(3): p.357-365.

Narkiewicz K, van de Borne P, Montano N, Hering D, Kara T, Somers VK, Sympathetic neural outflow and chemoreflex sensitivity are related to spontaneous breathing rate in normal men, Hypertension 2006 Jan; 47(1): p.51-55.

Ahuja D, Mateika JH, Diamond MP, Badr MS, Ventilatory sensitivity to carbon dioxide before and after episodic hypoxia in women treated with testosterone, J Appl Physiol. 2007 May; 102(5): p.1832-1838.

Travers J, Dudgeon DJ, Amjadi K, McBride I, Dillon K, Laveneziana P, Ofir D, Webb KA, O’Donnell DE, Mechanisms of exertional dyspnea in patients with cancer, J Appl Physiol 2008 Jan; 104(1): p.57-66.

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