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References for Table (Minute Ventilation in Normal Subjects)

Hyperventilation Prevalence Table (Historical changes)
at rest for normal subjects

Condition Minute
Age N. of
Healthy Subjects 6-7 L/min - >400 Results of 14 studies
Normal breathing 6 - - Medical textbooks
Normal subjects 4.9 - 5 Griffith et al, 1929
Normal males 5.3±0.1   27-43 46 Shock et al, 1939
Normal females 4.6±0.1   27-43 40 Shock et al, 1939
Normal subjects 6.9±0.9 - 100 Matheson et al, 1950
Normal subjects 9.1±4.5 31±7 11 Kassabian et al, 1982
Normal subjects 8.1±2.1 42±14 11 D'Alonzo et al, 1987
Normal subjects 6.3±2.2 - 12 Pain et al, 1988
Normal males 13±3 40 (av.) 12 Clague et al, 1994
Normal subjects 9.2±2.5 34±7 13 Radwan et al, 1995
Normal subjects 15±4 28-34 12 Dahan et al, 1995
Normal subjects 12±4 55±10 43 Clark et al, 1995
Normal subjects 12±2 41±2 10 Tantucci et al, 1996
Normal subjects* 11±3 53±11 24 Clark et al, 1997
Normal subjects 8.1±0.4 34±2 63 Meessen et al, 1997
Normal females 9.9 20-28 23 Han et al, 1997
Normal males 15 20-28 47 Han et al, 1997
Normal females 10 29-60 42 Han et al, 1997
Normal males 11 29-62 42 Han et al, 1997
Normal subjects 13±3 36±6 10 Tantucci et al, 1997
Normal subjects 12±1 65±2 10 Epstein et al, 1996
Normal subjects 12±1 12-69 20 Bowler et al, 1998
Normal subjects 10±6 39±4 20 DeLorey et al, 1999
Normal seniors 12±4 70±3 14 DeLorey et al, 1999
Normal elderly* 14±3 88±2 11 DeLorey et al, 1999
Normal subjects 17±1 41±2 15 Tantucci et al, 2001
Normal subjects 10±0.5 - 10 Bell et al, 2005
Normal subjects 8.5±1.2 30±8 69 Narkiewicz, 2006
Normal females 10±0.4 - 11 Ahuja et al, 2007
Normal subjects 12±2 62±2 20 Travers et al, 2008
Condition Minute
Age N. of

References for the Table (in the same order)

Griffith FR, Pucher GW, Brownell KA, Klein JD, Carmer ME, Studies in human physiology. IV. Vital capacity, respiratory rate and volume, and composition of the expired air. Am. J. Physiol 1929, vol. 89, p. 555.

Shock NW, Soley MH, Average Values for Basal Respiratory Functions in Adolescents and Adults, J. Nutrition, 1939, 18, p. 143.

Matheson HW, Gray JS, Ventilatory function tests. III Resting ventilation, metabolism, and derived measures, J Clin Invest 1950 June; 29(6): p. 688–692.

Kassabian J, Miller KD, Lavietes MH, Respiratory center output and ventilatory timing in patients with acute airway (asthma) and alveolar (pneumonia) disease, Chest 1982 May; 81(5): p.536-543.

D'Alonzo GE, Gianotti LA, Pohil RL, Reagle RR, DuRee SL, Fuentes F, Dantzker DR, Comparison of progressive exercise performance of normal subjects and patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, Chest 1987 Jul; 92(1): p.57-62.

Pain MC, Biddle N, Tiller JW, Panic disorder, the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide and respiratory variables, Psychosom Med 1988 Sep-Oct; 50(5): p. 541-548.

Clague JE, Carter J, Coakley J, Edwards RH, Calverley PM, Respiratory effort perception at rest and during carbon dioxide rebreathing in patients with dystrophia myotonica, Thorax 1994 Mar; 49(3): p.240-244.

Radwan L, Maszczyk Z, Koziorowski A, Koziej M, Cieslicki J, Sliwinski P, Zielinski J, Control of breathing in obstructive sleep apnoea and in patients with the overlap syndrome, Eur Respir J. 1995 Apr; 8(4): p.542-545.

Dahan A, van den Elsen MJ, Berkenbosch A, DeGoede J, Olievier IC, van Kleef JW, Halothane affects ventilatory afterdischarge in humans, Br J Anaesth 1995 May; 74(5): p.544-548.

Clark AL, Chua TP, Coats AJ, Anatomical dead space, ventilatory pattern, and exercise capacity in chronic heart failure, Br Heart J 1995 Oct; 74(4): p. 377-380.

Tantucci C, Bottini P, Dottorini ML, Puxeddu E, Casucci G, Scionti L, Sorbini CA, Ventilatory response to exercise in diabetic subjects with autonomic neuropathy, J Appl Physiol 1996, 81(5): p.1978–1986.

Clark AL, Volterrani M, Swan JW, Coats AJS, The increased ventilatory response to exercise in chronic heart failure: relation to pulmonary pathology, Heart 1997; 77: p.138-146.

Meessen NE, van der Grinten CP, Luijendijk SC, Folgering HT, Breathing pattern during bronchial challenge in humans, Eur Respir J 1997 May; 10(5): p.1059-1063.

Han JN, Stegen K, Simkens K, Cauberghs M, Schepers R, Van den Bergh O, Clément J, Van de Woestijne KP, Unsteadiness of breathing in patients with hyperventilation syndrome and anxiety disorders, Eur Respir J 1997; 10: p. 167–176.

Tantucci C, Scionti L, Bottini P, Dottorini ML, Puxeddu E, Casucci G, Sorbini CA, Influence of autonomic neuropathy of different severities on the hypercapnic drive to breathing in diabetic patients, Chest. 1997 Jul; 112(1): 145-153.

Epstein SK, Zilberberg MD; Facoby C, Ciubotaru RL, Kaplan LM, Response to symptom-limited exercise in patients with the hepatopulmonary syndrome, Chest 1998; 114; p. 736-741.

Bowler SD, Green A, Mitchell CA, Buteyko breathing techniques in asthma: a blinded randomised controlled trial, Med J of Australia 1998; 169: p. 575-578.

DeLorey DS, Babb TG, Progressive mechanical ventilatory constraints with aging, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999 Jul; 160(1): p.169-177.

Tantucci C, Bottini P, Fiorani C, Dottorini ML, Santeusanio F, Provinciali L, Sorbini CA, Casucci G, Cerebrovascular reactivity and hypercapnic respiratory drive in diabetic autonomic neuropathy, J Appl Physiol 2001, 90: p. 889–896.

Bell HJ, Feenstra W, Duffin J, The initial phase of exercise hyperpnoea in humans is depressed during a cognitive task, Experimental Physiology 2005 May; 90(3): p.357-365.

Narkiewicz K, van de Borne P, Montano N, Hering D, Kara T, Somers VK, Sympathetic neural outflow and chemoreflex sensitivity are related to spontaneous breathing rate in normal men, Hypertension 2006 Jan; 47(1): p.51-55.

Ahuja D, Mateika JH, Diamond MP, Badr MS, Ventilatory sensitivity to carbon dioxide before and after episodic hypoxia in women treated with testosterone, J Appl Physiol. 2007 May; 102(5): p.1832-1838.

Travers J, Dudgeon DJ, Amjadi K, McBride I, Dillon K, Laveneziana P, Ofir D, Webb KA, O'Donnell DE, Mechanisms of exertional dyspnea in patients with cancer, J Appl Physiol 2008 Jan; 104(1): p.57-66.

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