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Cold Shower Benefits (Studies and Abstracts)

These are clinical studies and abstracts for the webpage devoted to cold shower benefits and rules.

Cold Shower Benefits; Brown Fat Research

Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(5):995-1001. Epub 2007 Nov 13.
Adapted cold shower as a potential treatment for depression.
Shevchuk NA.
Molecular Radiobiology Section, The Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, 401 College St, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.
Depression is a debilitating mood disorder that is among the top causes of isability worldwide. It can be characterized by a set of somatic, emotional, and behavioral symptoms, one of which is a high risk of suicide. This work presents a hypothesis that depression may be caused by the convergence of two factors: (A) A lifestyle that lacks certain physiological stressors that have been experienced by primates through millions of years of evolution, such as brief changes in body temperature (e.g. cold swim), and this lack of "thermal exercise" may cause inadequate functioning of the brain. (B) Genetic makeup that predisposes an
individual to be affected by the above condition more seriously than other people. To test the hypothesis, an approach to treating depression is proposed that consists of adapted cold showers (20 degrees C, 2-3 min, preceded by a 5-min gradual adaptation to make the procedure less shocking) performed once or twice
daily. The proposed duration of treatment is several weeks to several months. The following evidence appears to support the hypothesis: Exposure to cold is known to activate the sympathetic nervous system and increase the blood level of beta-endorphin and noradrenaline and to increase synaptic release of noradrenaline in the brain as well. Additionally, due to the high density of cold receptors in the skin, a cold shower is expected to send an overwhelming amount of electrical impulses from peripheral nerve endings to the brain, which could result in an anti-depressive effect. Practical testing by a statistically insignificant number of people, who did not have sufficient symptoms to be diagnosed with depression, showed that the cold hydrotherapy can relieve depressive symptoms rather effectively. The therapy was also found to have a significant analgesic effect and it does not appear to have noticeable side effects or cause dependence. In conclusion, wider and more rigorous studies would
be needed to test the validity of the hypothesis.


Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(2):230-8. Epub 2007 Jul 20.
Hydrotherapy as a possible neuroleptic and sedative treatment.
Shevchuk NA.
Molecular Radiobiology Section, Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, 401 College Street, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.
Psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations can have a devastating effect on a patient's social functioning. Since psychosis is rarely congenital, it is possible that lifestyle factors play a role in its etiology. This paper offers a hypothesis that some of these factors could be: (a) A lifestyle lacking evolutionarily conserved stressors such as frequent exposure to heat and/or cold, resulting in a lack of "thermal exercise" which could lead to malfunctioning of the brain. (b) Partial retention and absorption of toxic waste in the colon, as described in more detail below. (c) Genetic makeup that makes a person vulnerable to the above conditions. To test the hypothesis, three types of hydrotherapy are proposed (to be tested separately) as a putative neuroleptic treatment: head-out hot showers, adapted cold showers (twice daily each), and colon hydrotherapy (every 3-12 weeks, which also includes a dietary change according to Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid). The following is supporting evidence: Dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic pathway is involved in central processing of pain and negative stimuli (e.g. stress-induced analgesia) in addition to its role in the pathophysiology of psychosis. It is also known that if a neural pathway can perform two different functions, then the execution of one function will often suppress the other (e.g. gate control theory of pain). Thus, a pain-based therapy, such as a moderately hot shower, could have a "crowding out" effect on
pathological processes within the mesolimbic system. In addition, hyperthermia is known to induce fatigue and depress activity of the frontal cortex (the sedative effect). As described previously, an adapted cold shower could work as a mild electroshock applied to the sensory cortex and, therefore, it might have an antipsychotic effect similar to that of electroconvulsive therapy. Additionally, a cold shower is a vivid example of stress-induced analgesia and would also be expected to "crowd out" or suppress psychosis-related neurotransmission within the mesolimbic system. Human and bacterial toxic waste can sometimes be partially retained in the colon and it is known that many high-molecular-weight compounds can be absorbed there. Most narcotics can cause intoxication if administered
rectally and there is also significant comorbidity of schizophrenia with intestinal illnesses. Additionally, there is indirect evidence that colon cleansing can significantly improve mental state. Therefore, it is possible that
chronic intoxication with yet unknown components of partially retained waste could be one of the unrecognized organic causes of psychosis.


J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2001 Apr;101(4):219-25.
Effect of cooling on muscular health prior to running a marathon.
Liang MT, Allen TW, McKeigue ME, Kotis A, Gierke LW.
Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Ave., Pomona, CA 91768, USA.
To examine the effects of a prerace whole-body cold shower on muscle soreness (MS) and on serum creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme activities, 16 experienced distance runners were randomly assigned to one of two treatment categories prior to running a marathon: cold shower (n = 8) or without cold shower (n = 8). Venous blood samples were drawn 3 days before the race, 10 minutes before the race, immediately (within 3 minutes) after the race, and at 1, 24, 48, and 96 hours postrace. Nine muscle sites were evaluated for soreness 10 minutes before the race, immediately after the race, and at 24, 48, and 96 hours postrace. The results showed a marked (P < .05) difference between the cold shower group and the group without cold showers for CK-MB/CK ratio, and no difference for CK, CK-MB, and MS. Both CK and CK-MB values peaked at 24 hours postrace. MS occurred most frequently immediately after the race and at 24 hours postrace. The MS was completely resolved in all subjects by 96 hours postrace. The most frequently reported sites of MS were the quadriceps, followed by the gastrocnemius, the soleus, and the tibialis anterior. Severe MS was rated highest at the quadriceps and the soleus, and the least at the gastrocnemius and the tibialis anterior. The data suggest that prerace whole-body cold showers neither prevented the production of serum CK and its MB fraction, nor attenuated MS after
a marathon. Peak serum CK and CK-MB activity was not associated with the onset of MS.


Presse Med. 1994 Mar 12;23(10):485-9.
[Prevention and treatment of sleep disorders through regulation] of sleeping habits]
[Article in French]
Onen SH, Onen F, Bailly D, Parquet P.
Clinique du Sommeil, CHRU, Lille.
Healthy sleeping habits is a complex balance between behaviour, environment and circadian rhythm. The quality of sleep can be improved by behaviour, e.g. eating tryptophan and carbohydrate rich foods, physical exercise in the afternoon or a cold shower just before going to bed. Total sleep time is maximal in thermoneutrality and decreases above and below the thermoneutrality zone. Thermoneutrality is reached for an environmental temperature of 30-32 degrees C without night clothing or of 16-19 degrees with a pyjama and at least one sheet. Noise also modifies sleep structure and above 50dB shortens total sleeping time. Although subjects do become subjectively accustomed to noise, vegetative cardiovascular reactivity to environmental noise remains unchanged. The spontaneous circadian awake/sleep cycle is 25 hours, slightly longer than the body temperature cycle, but when subjects are exposed to environmental synchronization, the two cycles coincide. In individuals undergoing temporal isolation, the two rhythms become independent often leading to subjective discomfort and fatigue. Certain factors including age can favour internal desynchronization. Other factors may include social contact, stress due to mental work load, and constant lighting which could lengthen the awake/sleep cycle. Caffeine blocks the receptors of adenosine, and thus its effects of inhibiting neurotransmission. Intake 30 to 60 minutes before sleeping shortens total sleep time and increases the duration of stage 2 and shortens stage 3 and 4. Alcohol may act as a relaxing, sedative agent when consumed just before sleeping but can also lead to night-time awakening due to sympathetic activation which does not return to baseline levels until the blood alcohol levels have returned to 0. Nicotine has a biphasic effect on sleep: at low concentrations, it leads to relaxation and sedation and at high concentrations inhibits sleep. A careful study of sleeping habits is the first step in evaluating complains of insomnia or hypersomnia. Before relyng on drugs, treatment should start with attention to the sleep environment and personal habits.


Wien Med Wochenschr. 1994;144(3):66-8.
[Fitness by cold stimulation of various intensity: effects on metabolism of purines and free radicals]
[Article in German]
Brenke R, Siems W, Maass R.
Klinik und Poliklinik for Physikalische Medizin und Rehabilitation, Berlin, Deutschland.
Whole-body cold stimuli lead to a dosage-depended decrease of uric acid level in blood plasma. This could be observed in own studies on winter-swimming and cold shower application and in studies on patients treated by cold-chamber-therapy. This uric acid decrease is due to an accelerated oxygen radical formation during cold exposition rather than to an inhibition of purine metabolism. The acute oxidative loading due to cold exposure and the long-term antioxidative adaptation may be interpreted as a new molecular mechanism resulting in body hardening.


Acta Belg Med Phys. 1990 Oct-Dec;13(4):201-8.
[Lumbar hypermobility: where swimming becomes hydrotherapy]
[Article in Dutch]
Mergeay D, De Neve M.
Fysische Geneeskunde, Algemeen Ziekenhuis Stuivenberg Antwerpen.
In this paper the authors discuss the clinical problem of lumbar hypermobility. The therapeutical possibilities are resumed briefly. The philosophy of medical training therapy ("Heilgymnastik") is described. More extensive the extra-advantages of hydrotherapy (methodical back-stroke swimming) are searched for in a theoretical deductive way. The authors found that: 1. swimming is a low-impact sport so far as the articulations are concerned, 2. back-stroke is done mainly in a lumbar kyphosis, 3. swimming is also an excellent cardiopulmonary training, 4. when swimming the muscles of the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle are trained in a nearly isokinetic way (power-endurance), 5. the short transverso-spinal muscles are indirectly trained in their tonic more than phasic stretch reflex (posture function), 6. the muscles of the trunk are trained
in a nearly isometric way in the appropriate angles (erect position), 7. the position of the head in the water facilitates the abdominal muscles (tonic neck reflex), 8. the cool temperature of the water generates training-enhancing stress-responses, 9. endurance-training is ideal for the postural function of the lower back muscles (especially the deeper layers near the spine) which are anatomical and physiological suited for this purpose, 10. warming-up and cooling-down procedures prepare the neuromuscular, the cardiovascular and metabolic functions before the workout-session (a cold shower afterwards acts to tonicize the skin and muscles).


J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Nov;49(5):842-6.
Prevalence and characterization of uremic pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis: uremic pruritus is still a major problem for patients with end-stage renal disease.
Zucker I, Yosipovitch G, David M, Gafter U, Boner G.
Department of Dermatology, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva.
BACKGROUND: Pruritus is a common disabling problem in patients with advanced end-stage renal disease. Few studies have evaluated the clinical characteristics of uremic itch. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this multicenter study was to provide a comprehensive description of the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pruritus affecting patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: A detailed questionnaire recently developed was used to evaluate pruritus in 219 patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment in 3 dialysis units. We examined the relationship of the quality of dialysis and various
factors and medical parameters to itch. RESULTS: Pruritus was a common symptom in the study population. Approximately 66% of the patients had pruritus at some point, and 48% were affected by it at the time of the study. There was no correlation between the occurrence of pruritus and demographic or medical parameters (type of kidney disease, medical management, dialysis efficacy as expressed by Kt/V) of the patient. The data suggest that uremic pruritus tends to be prolonged, frequent, and intense, and it can impair the patient's quality of life including a negative effect on sleep and mood. Major factors found to exacerbate pruritus include rest, heat, dry skin, and sweat. Major factors found to reduce pruritus include activity, sleep, hot and cold shower, and cold. Treatment with angiotensin inhibitors seemed to be more common among those with uremia who had itch (P =.02) whereas furosemide was more commonly used among those who never itched (P =.002). CONCLUSION: This study provides a detailed description of uremic pruritus with new data on its characteristics including affective and sensory dimensions and associated symptoms.


Ageing Res Rev. 2010 Jan;9(1):69-76. Epub 2009 Dec 5.
Perspective: Does brown fat protect against diseases of aging?
Mattson MP.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. mattsonm@grc.nia.nih.gov
The most commonly studied laboratory rodents possess a specialized form of fat called brown adipose tissue (BAT) that generates heat to help maintain body temperature in cold environments. In humans, BAT is abundant during embryonic and early postnatal development, but is absent or present in relatively small amounts in adults where it is located in paracervical and supraclavicular regions. BAT cells can 'burn' fatty acid energy substrates to generate heat because they possess large numbers of mitochondria in which oxidative phosphorylation is uncoupled from ATP production as a result of a transmembrane proton leak mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Studies of rodents in which BAT levels are either increased or decreased have revealed a role for BAT in protection against diet-induced obesity. Data suggest that individuals with low levels of BAT are prone to obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, whereas those with higher levels of BAT maintain lower body weights and exhibit superior health as they age. BAT levels decrease during aging, and dietary energy restriction increases BAT activity and protects multiple organ systems including the nervous system against age-related dysfunction and degeneration. Future studies in which the effects of specific manipulations of BAT levels and thermogenic activity on disease processes in animal models (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases) are determined will establish if and how BAT affects the development and progression of age-related diseases. Data from animal studies suggest that BAT and mitochondrial uncoupling can be targeted for interventions to prevent and treat obesity and age-related diseases. Examples include: diet and lifestyle changes; specific regimens of mild intermittent stress; drugs that stimulate BAT formation and activity; induction of brown adipose cell progenitors in muscle and other tissues; and transplantation of brown adipose cells.


Physiol Genomics. 2005 Dec 14;24(1):37-44. Epub 2005 Oct 11.
Evidence for Nr4a1 as a cold-induced effector of brown fat thermogenesis.
Kanzleiter T, Schneider T, Walter I, Bolze F, Eickhorst C, Heldmaier G, Klaus S, Klingenspor M.
Department of Animal Physiology, Biology Faculty, Philipps University-Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
Acute cold exposure leads to norepinephrine release in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and activates uncoupling protein (UCP)1-mediated nonshivering thermogenesis. Chronic sympathetic stimulation is known to initiate mitochondrial biogenesis, UCP1 expression, hyperplasia of BAT, and recruitment of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots. Despite distinct functions of BAT and WAT in energy balance, only a few genes are exclusively expressed in either tissue. We identified NUR77 (Nr4a1), an orphan receptor, to be induced transiently in brown adipocytes in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation and in BAT of cold-exposed mice. Subsequent reporter gene assays demonstrated an inhibitory action of NUR77 on basal and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma/retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha-mediated transactivation of the Ucp1 enhancer in heterologous cotransfection experiments. Despite this function of NUR77 in the control of Ucp1 gene expression, nonshivering thermogenesis was not affected in Nur77 knockout mice. However, we observed a superinduction of Nor1 in BAT of cold-exposed knockout mice. We conclude that NUR77 is a cold-induced negative regulator of Ucp1, but phenotypic consequences in knockout mice are compensated by functional redundancy of Nor1.


References and Abstracts for Brown Adipose Tissue Research

Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010 Jun;6(6):319-25. Epub 2010 Apr 13.
Brown adipose tissue--a new role in humans?
Lidell ME, Enerbuck S.
Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Box 440, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
New targets for pharmacological interventions are of great importance to combat the epidemic of obesity. Brown adipose tissue could potentially represent one such target. Unlike white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue has the ability to dissipate energy by producing heat rather than storing it as triglycerides. In small mammals, the presence of active brown adipose tissue is pivotal for the maintenance of body temperature and possibly to protect against the detrimental effects of surplus energy intake. Animal studies have shown that expansion and/or activation of brown adipose tissue counteracts diet-induced weight gain and related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several independent studies have now confirmed the presence of functional brown adipose tissue in adult humans, for whom this tissue is probably metabolically beneficial given its association with both low BMI and low total adipose tissue content. Over the past few years, knowledge of the transcriptional control and development of brown adipose tissue has increased substantially. Thus, several possible targets that may be useful for the expansion and/or activation of this tissue by pharmacological means have been identified. Whether or not brown adipose tissue will be useful in the battle against obesity remains to be seen. However, this possibility is certainly well worth exploring.


Obes Rev. 2009 May;10(3):265-8. Epub 2009 Jan 19.
Have we entered the brown adipose tissue renaissance?
Ravussin E, Kozak LP.
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA. Ravusse@pbrc.edu
In the 1970s and 1980s, it was observed that rodents could offset excess calories ingested when they were fed a human-like 'cafeteria diet'. Although it was erroneously concluded that this so-called diet-induced thermogenesis was because of brown adipose tissue (BAT), it led to efforts to test whether variations in brown fat in humans may explain the susceptibility to obesity. However, from evidence on the inability of ephedrine or beta-3 adrenergic agonists to induce BAT thermogenesis, it was concluded that the thermogenic role of BAT was unimportant in adult humans largely because humans had low numbers of brown adipocytes. Solid evidence on the actual numbers of brown adipocytes in humans was not available. We are now re-evaluating the role of BAT for the treatment of obesity given the following recent observations (i) studies in nuclear medicine by using PET/CT scanning reveal the presence of BAT in adult humans; and (ii) recent data suggest that a new transcription factor called PDRM16 may control the induction of BAT. These recent discoveries should revamp our effort to target the molecular development of brown adipogenesis in the treatment of obesity.


Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2010 Apr;17(2):143-9.
Brown fat as a therapy for obesity and diabetes.
Cypess AM, Kahn CR.
Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, Massachusetts, 02215, USA.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human fat consists of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT). Though most fat is energy-storing WAT, the thermogenic capacity of even small amounts of BAT makes it an attractive therapeutic target for inducing weight loss through energy expenditure. This review evaluates the recent discoveries regarding the identification of functional BAT in adult humans and its potential as a therapy for obesity and diabetes.
RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past year, several independent research teams used a combination of positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging, immunohistochemistry, and gene and protein expression assays to prove conclusively that adult humans have functional BAT. This has occurred against a backdrop of basic studies defining the origins of BAT, new components of its transcriptional regulation, and the role of hormones in stimulation of BAT growth and differentiation.
SUMMARY: Adult humans have functional BAT, a new target for antiobesity and antidiabetes therapies focusing on increasing energy expenditure. Future studies will refine the methodologies used to measure BAT mass and activity, expand our knowledge of critical-control points in BAT regulation, and focus on testing pharmacological agents that increase BAT thermogenesis and help achieve long-lasting weight loss and an improved metabolic profile.


Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Mar;1801(3):372-6. Epub 2009 Sep 24.
Recruitment of brown fat and conversion of white into brown adipocytes: strategies to fight the metabolic complications of obesity?
Langin D.
Inserm U858, Laboratoire de recherches sur les obesitis, Toulouse, F-31432, France. dominique.langin@inserm.fr
The role of white and brown adipose tissues in energy metabolism is well established. However, the existence of brown fat in adult humans was until very recently a matter of debate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying brown adipocyte development remained largely unknown. In 2009, several studies brought direct evidence for functional brown adipose tissue in adults. New factors involved in brown fat cell differentiation have been identified. Moreover, work on the origin of fat cells took an unexpected path with the recognition of different populations of brown fat cell precursors according to the anatomical location of the fat depots: a precursor common to skeletal muscle cells and brown adipocytes from brown fat depots, and a progenitor cell common to white adipocytes and brown adipocytes that appear in certain conditions in white fat depots. There is also mounting evidence that mature white adipocytes, including human fat cells, can be converted into brown fat-like adipocytes, and that the typical fatty acid storage phenotype of white adipocyte can be altered towards a fat utilization phenotype. These data open up new opportunities for the development of drugs for obesity and its metabolic and cardiovascular complications.


Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;293(2):E444-52. Epub 2007 May 1.
Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans.
Nedergaard J, Bengtsson T, Cannon B.
The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. jan@metabol.su.se
The contention that brown adipose tissue is absent in adult man has meant that processes attributed to active brown adipose tissue in experimental animals (mainly rodents), i.e., classical nonshivering thermogenesis, adaptive adrenergic thermogenesis, diet-induced thermogenesis, and antiobesity, should be either absent or attributed to alternative (unknown) mechanisms in man. However, serendipidously, as a consequence of the use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) to trace tumor metastasis, observations that may change that notion have recently been made. These tomography scans have visualized symmetrical areas of increased tracer uptake in the upper parts of the human body; these areas of uptake correspond to brown adipose tissue. We examine here the published observations from a viewpoint of human physiology. The human depots are somewhat differently located from those in rodents, the main depots being found in the supraclavicular and the neck regions with some additional paravertebral, mediastinal, para-aortic, and suprarenal localizations (but no interscapular). Brown adipose tissue activity in man is acutely cold induced and is stimulated via the sympathetic nervous system. The prevalence of active brown adipose tissue in normal adult man can be only indirectly estimated, but it would seem that the prevalence of active brown adipose tissue in the population may be at least in the range of some tens of percent. We conclude that a substantial fraction of adult humans possess active brown adipose tissue that thus has the potential to be of metabolic significance for normal human physiology as well as to become pharmaceutically activated in efforts to combat obesity.


J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Oct;53(4):671-83.
Subcutaneous fat in normal and diseased states: 2. Anatomy and physiology of white and brown adipose tissue.
Avram AS, Avram MM, James WD.
White and brown adipose tissues, both present to some degree in all mammals, represent counter actors in energy metabolism. One of the primary functions of white adipocytes is to store excess energy as lipid, which is then mobilized to other tissues in response to metabolic needs that arise in times of food shortage. White adipocyte physiology can be grouped into 3 main categories with potentially overlapping mechanisms: lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and endocrine functions. Brown adipocytes, on the other hand, use accumulated lipid from food primarily as a source for chemical energy that can then be released from the cell in the form of heat. Recently, new discoveries about the significance of brown fat have sparked interest in this organ as a potential tool in the fight against obesity in adult humans. A basic overview of the anatomy and physiology of adipose tissue, with particular emphasis on the differences between white and brown fat, is presented.


Mini Rev Med Chem. 2005 Mar;5(3):269-78.
The brown adipose cell: a unique model for understanding the molecular mechanism of insulin resistance.
Valverde AM, Benito M.
Instituto de Bioquamica/Departamento de Bioquamica y Biologia Molecular II, Centro Mixto CSIC/UCM, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid, Spain. valverde@farm.ucm.es
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a complex metabolic disease that occurs when insulin secretion can no longer compensate insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. At the molecular level, insulin resistance correlates with impaired insulin signaling. This review provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of insulin action and resistance in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and pinpoints the role of BAT in the control of glucose homeostasis.


Usp Fiziol Nauk. 2002 Apr-Jun;33(2):17-29.
[Brown fat tissue in humans]
[Article in Russian]
Medvedev LN, Elsukova EI.
Pedagogical University, Krasnoyarsk.
Abstract
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is universally present in mammals. Thermal production in such tissue is physiologically important for maintaining temperature homeostasis and regulation of body mass in small-size homoiotherms. At present it is clearly established that unlike other large mammals, brown adipose in man and primates is retained throughout the whole postnatal othogenesis. Therefore, BAT appears as a possible effector of pharmacogenetic protection from human excessive adiposis. Systematic reserach of various functioning aspects of this unique organ of mammals were started abroad as early as 1960-es, and are actively developing at present. Domestic research of energy circulation physiology and of thermoregulation developed mostly outside the brown adipose tissue. Therefore, the principal objective of this publication is to draw attention of experimental and clinical researches to an intriguing aspect of the issue of energy circulation in humans--the issue of brown adipose functioning.

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