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Complete Table for Body-Oxygen Level in Sick People

Medical and physiological studies and research articles about BHT (breath holding time) test, or CP (Control Pause), or Buteyko Control Pause, or body oxygen index, or body oxygen level in sick people

Here is a more detailed Table from the web page Breath Holding Time (Oxygenation Index - CP) in Sick People

Abbreviations for Table 5: "max" - maximum; "in" - inhalation; "out" - outhale or exhalation; "norm" - normal.

Table (Low Body-Oxygen Level or Body Oxygen Index in the Sick)

Condition # of
Test conditions
(order of actions
before BHT test)
% of
for CP
Hypertension 95 12 s 12 s Norm out, stress 100% Ayman et al, 1939
Neurocircular. asthenia 54 16 s 40 s Max in 40% Friedman, 1945
Anxiety states 62 20 s 28 s Norm in 73% Mirsky et al, 1946
Class 1 heart patients 16 16 s 48 s Max: in, out, in 33.3% Kohn & Cutcher, 1970
Class 2-3 heart patients 53 13 s 39 s Max: in, out, in 33.3% Kohn & Cutcher, 1970
Pulmonary emphysema 3 8 s 23 s Max: in, out, in 33.3% Kohn & Cutcher, 1970
Functional heart disease 13 5 s 15 s Max: in, out, in 33.3% Kohn & Cutcher, 1970
Asymptom. asthmatics 7 20 s 55 s Max out, max in 38 % Davidson et al, 1974
Asthmatics with sympt 13 11 s 27 s Max in 40 % Perez-Padilla .., 1989
Panic attack 14 11 s 34 s Deep breath:50%O2 33.3% Zandbergen .., 1992
Anxiety disorders 14 16 s 49 s Deep breath:50%O2 33.3% Zandbergen .., 1992
Outpatients 25 17 s 43 s Max in 40 % Gay et al, 1994
Inpatients 25 10 s 25 s Max in 40 % Gay et al, 1994
COPD or CHF 7 8 s 21 s Max in 40 % Gay et al, 1994
12 heavy smokers 12 8 s 21 s Max in 40 % Gay et al, 1994
Panic disorder 23 16 s 16 s Norm out 100% Asmudson..., 1994
sleep apnea 30 20 s 20 s Norm out 100% Taskar et al, 1995
Success. lung transpl. 9 23 s 23 s Norm out 100% Flume et al, 1996
Success. heart transpl. 8 28 s 28 s Norm out 100% Flume et al, 1996
Outpatients with COPD 87 8 s 9.2 s Norm out, supine 90% Marks et al, 1997
Asthma 55 14 s 24 Norm out, trained 60 % Nannini et al, 2007

Notes. “Handbook of physiology”, after analyzing numerous studies, suggested the following proportions for BHT test measurements (Mithoefer, 1965). If BHT test after full inhalation is 100%; then BHT test after normal inhalation is about 55%; BHT after normal exhalation is around 40%; BHT after full exhalation is about 24%. Taking an additional full exhalation or inhalation just before starting the test increases BHT test results by 5 to 15% respectively for each manoeuvre. Those subjects, who have repetitive breath holds many times in a day, experience the “training” effect. It gradually increases maximum BHT (up to 30%), but the BHT test done until the first stress or initial discomfort is not improved after such training. This data allows us to compare different BHT test results done during almost a century of physiological and clinical research investigations, if we chose some standard conditions for the test: the CP or BHT test after quiet or usual expiration and only until the first sensation of air-hunger (a stress-free version of the BHT test). For people who practiced breath holding test many times per day, maximum BHT (for as long as possible) after usual exhalation is around 2 times longer then the CP number due to the “training effect”.

**. Zandbergen et al, 1992 conducted their research experiments with the mixture of about 50% O2 and 50% N2. According to Ferris with his colleagues (1945), this mixture increases normal BHT test by about 50%.

These breath holding time or CP numbers for the sick can be compared with Normal Body-Oxygen Level Results - CP in Healthy People

References for Table 5 (CP in Sick People)

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