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References for Table Normal Breath Holding Time -

Control Pause in Healthy People

Schneider, 1919

Observations were made in 1919, published in Schneider, 1930, see below.


Flack, 1920

Flack M, Some simple tests of physical efficiency, Lancet 1920; 196: p. 210-212.


Schneider, 1930

Schneider EC, Observation on holding the breath, Am J Physiol, 1930, 94, p. 464-470.


Friedman, 1945

Friedman M, Studies concerning the aetiology and pathogenesis of neurocirculatory asthenia III. The cardiovascular manifestations of neurocirculatory asthenia, Am Heart J 1945; 30, p. 378-391.


Ferris, 1946

Ferris EB, Engel GL, Stevens CD, Webb J, Voluntary breathholding, III. The relation of the maximum time of breathholding to the oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions of arterial blood, with a note on its clinical and physiological significance, J Clin Invest 1946, 25: 734-743.


Mirsky et al, 1946

Mirsky I A, Lipman E, Grinker R R, Breath-holding time in anxiety state, Federation proceedings 1946; 5: p. 74.


Karpovich et al, 1947

Karpovich PV, Breath holding as a test of physical endurance, Am J Physiol, 1947, 149: p. 720-723


Rodbard, 1947

Rodbard S, The effect of oxygen, altitude and exercise on breath-holding time, Am J Physiol 1947, 150: p. 142-148.


Stroud, 1959

Stroud RC, Combined ventilatory and breath-holding evaluation of sensitivity to respiratory gases, J Appl Physiol 1959, 14: p. 353-356.


Kohn et al, 1970

Kohn RM & Cutcher B, Breath-holding time in the screening for rehabilitation potential of cardiac patients, Scand J Rehabil Med 1970; 2(2): p. 105-107.


Davidson et al, 1974

Davidson JT, Whipp BJ, Wasserman K, Koyal SN, Lugliani R, Role of the carotid bodies in breath-holding, New England Journal of Medicine 1974 April 11; 290(15): p. 819-822.


Stanley et al, 1975

Stanley NN, Cunningham EL, Altose MD, Kelsen SG, Levinson RS, Cherniack NS, Evaluation of breath holding in hypercapnia as a simple clinical test of respiratory chemosensitivity, Thorax 1975 Jun; 30(3): p. 337-343.


Gross et al, 1976

Gross PM, Whipp BJ, Davidson JT, Koyal SN, Wasserman K, Role of carotid bodies in the heart rate response to breath holding in man. J of Amer Physiol 1976, 41 (3); p. 336-339.


Bartlett et al, 1977

Bartlett D, Effects of Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers on breath-holding time, J Appl Physiol: Respiratory, Environ. & Exercise Physiol 1977 May, 42(5): p. 717-721.


Mukhtar et al, 1986

Mukhtar MR, Patrick JM, Ventilatory drive during face immersion in man, J. Physiol. 1986, 370; p. 13-24.


Morrissey et al, 1987

Morrissey SC, Keohane K, Coote JH, The effect of acetazolamide on breath holding at high altitude, Postgrad Med J 1987, 63; p. 189-190


Zandbergen et al, 1992

Zandbergen J, Strahm M, Pols H, Griez EJ, Breath-holding in panic disorder, Compar Psychiatry 1992 Jan-Feb; 33(1): p. 47-51.


Asmundson et al, 1994

Asmundson GJ & Stein MB, Triggering the false suffocation alarm in panic disorder patients by using a voluntary breath-holding procedure, Am J Psychiatry 1994 Feb; 151(2): p. 264-266.


Taskar et al, 1995

Taskar V, Clayton N, Atkins M, Shaheen Z, Stone P, Woodcock A, Breath-holding time in normal subjects, snorers, and sleep apnea patients, Chest 1995 Apr; 107(4): p. 959-962.


McNally & Eke, 1996

McNally RJ & Eke M, Anxiety sensitivity, suffocation fear, and breath-holding duration as predictors of response to carbon dioxide challenge, J Abnorm Psychol 1996 Feb; 105(1): p. 146-149.


Sasse et al, 1996

Sasse SA, Berry RB, Nguyen TK, Light RW, Mahutte CK, Arterial Blood Gas Changes During Breath-holding From Functional Residual Capacity, Chest 1996, 110; p.958-964.


Flume et al, 1996

Flume PA, Eldridge FL, Edwards LJ, Mattison LE, Relief of the 'air hunger' of breathholding. A role for pulmonary stretch receptors, Respir Physiol 1996 Mar; 103(3): p. 221-232.


Marks et al, 1997

Marks B, Mitchell DG, Simelaro JP, Breath-holding in healthy and pulmonary-compromised populations: effects of hyperventilation and oxygen inspiration, J Magn Reson Imaging 1997 May-Jun; 7(3): p. 595-597.


Joshi et al, 1998

Joshi LN, Joshi VD, Effect of forced breathing on ventilatory functions of the lung, J Postgrad Med. 1998 Jul-Sep; 44(3): p.67-69.


Morooka et al, 2000

Morooka H, Wakasugi Y, Shimamoto H, Shibata O, Sumikawa K, Hyperbaric Nitrogen Prolongs Breath-Holding Time in Humans, Anesth Analg 2000; 91: p.749 –751.


Bosco et al, 2004

Bosco G, Ionadi A, Data RG, Mortola JP, Voluntary breath-holding in the morning and in the evening Clinical Science (2004) 106, p. 347–352


Mitrouska et al, 2007

Mitrouska I, Tsoumakidou M, Prinianakis G, Milic-Emili J, Siafakas NM, Effect of voluntary respiratory efforts on breath-holding time, Respiratory Physiology Neurobiology 2007, 157; p. 290–294.


Andersson et al, 2009

Andersson JPA, Schagatay E, Repeated apneas do not affect the hypercapnic ventilatory response in the short term, Eur J Appl Physiol 2009, 105: p.569–574.

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