Studies about HIV-AIDS Cause: Low Body O2
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2004 May;16(5):284-6.
[Study of infusion of oxygen-enriched liquid to correct severe hypoxemia
in infectious diseases: a report of pilot clinical study]
[Article in Chinese]
He Q, Xu C, Wang S, Cui JJ, Duan G, Ye TS, Yang DG, Zhou BP, Zhao LS.
Donghu Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518020, Guangdong, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a new therapy for effectively correcting severe
hypoxemia in patients with infectious diseases by infusion of
oxygen-enriched liquid, in order to raise the partial pressure of blood
oxygen without passing through pathologically damaged alveoli of such
METHODS: Intravenous drip with oxygen-enriched liquids was given to 6 cases
suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and 3 cases of
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the course of treatment for 1
to 5 days, 500-700 ml per day.
RESULTS: For all the 9 SARS cases, their hypoxemia was gradually corrected
to normal in 20 minutes' or 4 hours' intravenous drip with oxygen-enriched
liquid. Respiratory rate decreased from 29-49 breath/min to 18-22
breath/min, heart rate decreased from 89-145 beats/min to 60-79 beats/min,
two faint patients regained consciousness, hypoxemia was redressed, partial
pressure of oxygen in artery increased from 56 mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) to
87 mm Hg, saturation of oxygen increased from 0.89 to 0.96.
CONCLUSION: Intravenous drip of the oxygen-enriched liquid effectively
helped correct the hypoxemia of SARS and other infectious diseases cases by
bypassing the diseased alveoli through which oxygen would not pass into the
blood by conventional oxygen inhalation. This therapy of oxygen-enriched
liquid infusion could be quite life-saving in the combined treatment for
SARS and other infectious diseases.
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005;117 Suppl 4:49-55.
Clinical features, aetiology and short-term outcome of interstitial
pneumonitis in HIV/AIDS patients at Bamrasnaradura Hospital, Nonthaburi,
Knauer A, Das AK, Tansuphasawadikul S, Supanaranond W, Pitisuttithum P,
Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
This prospective study was conducted at Bamrasnaradura Hospital from
November 11, 2002, until January 5, 2003, in order to describe the clinical
manifestations and determine the aetiologies as well as to assess the
short-term outcome of interstitial pneumonitis in HIV/AIDS patients. 59
patients with interstitial infiltrates on chest radiographs were included in
the study. Tuberculosis (TB) was the most common diagnosis (44%), followed
by Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (25.4%), bacterial pneumonia (20.3%) and
fungal pneumonia (10.2%). In TB, compared to other diagnoses, a mild cough
(p = 0.031), pallor (p = 0.021), lymphadenopathy (p < 0.001), an absence of
skin lesions (p = 0.003), a higher mean body temperature (p = 0.004) and an
absence of dyspnoea on exertion (p = 0.042) were significant findings. In
PCP, compared to other diagnoses, dyspnoea on exertion (p = 0.014),
nonpurulent sputum production (p = 0.047), a higher mean respiratory rate
(p < 0.001), and an absence of lymphadenopathy (p < 0.001) were
significant factors. In bacterial pneumonia, compared to other diagnoses,
production of purulent sputum (p = 0.014), haemoptysis (p = 0.006), skin
lesions (p = 0.002) and severe cough (p = 0.040) were significantly
associated factors. In fungal pneumonia, compared to other diagnoses,
headache and papulonecrotic skin lesions were common findings, but no factor
showed a significant association. After four weeks, 59.3% patients were
alive and 13.6% had died. Among those alive, 88.6% had clinically improved.
The cumulative survival after 28 days was highest among PCP patients,
followed by bacterial pneumonia, TB and fungal pneumonia, but these
differences were statistically not significant (p = 0.453).
Virchows Arch. 2009 Aug;455(2):159-70. Epub 2009 May 30.
LANA-1, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and HIF-1alpha protein expression in HIV-associated
Long E, Ilie M, Hofman V, Havet K, Selva E, Butori C, Lacour JP, Nelson AM,
Cathomas G, Hofman P.
Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Louis Pasteur Hospital,
Nice 06002, France.
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is necessary for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to develop,
but whether the tissue viral load is a marker of KS progression is still
unclear. Little is known about the level of expression of
apoptosis-regulating proteins and of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in KS
tumour cells relative to HHV8 expression. We therefore investigated the
expression of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) of HHV8,
Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bax, Bcl-xL, caspase 3 and HIF-1alphain KS tissue specimens at
different stages of the disease. The expression of these proteins was
evaluated immunohistochemically using tissue microarrays (TMAs) in tissue
specimens from 245 HIV-positive patients at different stages of the disease.
Both LANA-1 and HIF-1alpha were expressed in KS biopsies taken at different
stages, but their level increased throughout tumour progression.
Additionally, the levels of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 were higher in visceral KS
lesions compared to levels observed in cutaneous and mucosal KS. This study
demonstrates that late tumour stages of KS in tissues from HIV-positive
patients are associated with high levels of LANA-1, HIF-1alpha and of the
anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Finally, the expression of these
proteins can be potentially used as a tissue biomarker in defining patients
with a higher risk of disease progression.
J Biol Chem. 2009 Apr 24;284(17):11364-73. Epub 2009 Feb 9.
Activation of the oxidative stress pathway by HIV-1 Vpr leads to induction
of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression.
Deshmane SL, Mukerjee R, Fan S, Del Valle L, Michiels C, Sweet T, Rom I,
Khalili K, Rappaport J, Amini S, Sawaya BE.
Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neurovirology, Temple University
School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA.
The detection of biomarkers of oxidative stress in brain tissue and
cerebrospinal fluid of patients with human immunodeficiency virus, type 1
(HIV)-associated dementia indicates the involvement of stress pathways in
the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. Although the biological importance of
oxidative stress on events involved in AIDS neuropathogenesis and the HIV-1
proteins responsible for oxidative stress remain to be elucidated, our
results point to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) upon
HIV-1 infection and its elevation in brain cells of AIDS patients with
dementia. HIF-1 is a transcription factor that is responsive to oxygen.
Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha becomes stable and translocates to the
nucleus where it dimerizes with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear
translocator and modulates gene transcription. Activation of HIF-1 can also
be mediated by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr. In addition, cellular
components, including reactive oxygen species, contribute to the induction
of HIF-1alpha. Our results show that Vpr induces reactive oxygen species by
increasing H(2)O(2) production, which can contribute to HIF-1alpha
accumulation. Interestingly, increased levels of HIF-1alpha stimulated HIV-1
gene transcription through HIF-1 association with HIV-1 long terminal
repeat. These observations point to the existence of a positive feedback
interplay between HIF-1alpha and Vpr and that, by inducing oxidative stress
via activation of HIF-1, Vpr can induce HIV-1 gene expression and
dysregulate multiple host cellular pathways.
Med Hypotheses. 2002 Jun;58(6):439-43.
Human-bacteria nitric oxide cycles in HIV-1 infection.
Zhang H, Boring D, Haverkos H.
Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research,
Division of Antiviral Drug Products, Rockville, USA.
HIV infection, however, the NO(3)(-) is converted into NO and nitrite
NO(2)(-) and recirculated in the body, perhaps as a result of concomitant
opportunistic bacterial infections and cellular hypoxia...
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Nov;946:82-94.
Pathogenesis of HIV-related pulmonary hypertension.
Pellicelli AM, Palmieri F, Cicalini S, Petrosillo N.
Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive, Lazzaro Spallanzani, IRCCS,
...Chronic hypoxia is observed with
increased frequency in HIV patients...
Indian J Pediatr. 1999 Nov-Dec;66(6):895-904.
Pulmonary manifestations of pediatric HIV infection.
Khare MD, Sharland M.
Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, St. George's Hospital, London, United
Vertically acquired HIV infection is becoming increasingly common in India.
The main clinical manifestations of HIV in childhood are growth failure,
lymphadenopathy, chronic cough and fever, recurrent pulmonary infections,
and persistent diarrhea... The commonest AIDS
diagnosis in infancy is PCP, presenting in infancy with tachypnea, hypoxia,
and bilateral opacification on chest-X-ray (CXR)...
J Med Assoc Thai. 1996 Aug;79(8):477-85.
Pulmonary infections in HIV infected patients.
Mootsikapun P, Chetchotisakd P, Intarapoka B.
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.
We retrospectively reviewed causes, clinical presentations and chest
radiographs of pulmonary infections in symptomatic HIV infected patients
diagnosed in Srinagarind Hospital from February 1992 to 1994. We found 95
episodes of pulmonary infections in 88 HIV infected patients enrolled in our
review. The three most common pathogens were Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(37.2%), Pneumocystis carinii (23.8%), and Cryptococcus (15.2%). Coexistent
pulmonary infections were seen in 10.5 per cent, mostly due to P. carinii
and Cryptococcus neoformans. Extrapulmonary infections were also common,
particularly with M. tuberculosis (49%) and C. neoformans (100%). The common
clinical presentations were fever, dyspnea, and cough which frequency varied
among the organisms. Chest radiographs were nonspecific, the most common
finding was bilateral pulmonary infiltrates except that bacterial pneumonia
usually presented with unilateral infiltrates. All patients wit PC had
significant hypoxia (PaO2 < 70 mmHg)...
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